Master Thesis Assitantship

From 1996 through 2006, the association offered annual financial grants to three graduate research projects leading to a master’s degree or equivalent in the fields of water or Energy. Cooperation between different universities and joint studies were highly promoted and encouraged. The Association has awarded these assistantships for the same subject over a number of years in order to provide a complete database to be used by researchers and stakeholders.
Some of these theses were submitted to relative ministries as part of supporting the public sector in its actions for developing the Water and Energy governance. The assistantship is given to any Lebanese student, who is a holder of an engineering degree, recognized by the Lebanese Order of Engineers, and who is pursuing graduate work in Lebanon or abroad.

Find bellow a list of the awarded students, and projects.

1996-1997

Georges YARED

American University of Beirut / Faculty of Engineering

The evolution of electrical power systems was tightly geared by the development of two fields: power engineering, with the advanced technology of physical elements comprising all parts of a power system, and information processing tools to manage the performance of electric power utilities. Compared to power engineering that has gone through tremendous developments, information technology applications for electrical power systems are relatively young. The possible improvements of these applications are in their graphical, mapping and data analysis capabilities. State-of-the-art information technology such as Geographic Information Systems provides these facilities.

The objectives of this thesis is to devise a technique that combines power system software tools with the Geographic Information Systems software to enhance the operation, control and planning of electrical transmission systems. The load flow, voltage control, and fault analysis models for the transmission system will be re-engineered in a Geographic Information System environment. Although the research is generic, special attention is given to its application to the Lebanese electrical power system, which is recovering from an infrastructure devastating war.

The research entails integrating the Power Systems Analysis and Control Package, or PSACP, developed at the faculty of Engineering and Architecture, American University of Beirut, within a Geographic Information Systems environment (ARC/INFOR, an Environmental Systems Research Institute, or ESRI, product). This will enhance the power modeling capabilities by the use of powerful thematic mapping, geographic and data analysis, and user interface techniques that come with the Geographic Information Systems. An overview of the two technologies involved is presented, followed by a detailed description of the integration technique before describing the integrated system. Moving to a higher level, the features (capabilities) of the system are presented, followed by sample applications of the integrated system on the Lebanese electrical power system.

The thesis contributes to the research arena by developing a software re-engineering and integration technique, and to the real-world arena by enhancing system security, improving quality of power supply, and increasing the operational efficiency.

1996-1997

Reem MTIEREK

American University of Beirut / Faculty of Engineering

The problem of optimal allocation of a limited water supply for irrigation of several crops, grown in the same area, is addressed. Both intraseasonal and interseasonal competition for water between crops are considered.

The specific objectives of this study are:

  1. To develop an optimization model to choose the optimal cropping pattern, among different alternatives, which satisfies the existing climatic, agronomic, soil, economic, and land and water availability constraints for a selected area,
  2. To design an efficient water distribution system that fulfils the crop water requirements, in time and quantity,
  3. To choose the most economic alternative based on cropping pattern profitability and distribution system cost. Ghazzah, a village in South Bekaa – Lebanon, has been chosen as a pilot study area.

A linear programming (LP) mathematical model is developed to solve the problem of water allocation. The objective function of the formulated model is to maximize net returns from a cropping pattern selected from crops grown in South Bekaa. The constraining variables include water and land availability as well as agronomic and production conditions. Two different scenarios, based on different constraints, are tested within the model. Results obtained from the LP model indicate that the current pattern is not optimal and should be replaced by another one. Accordingly, new crops are introduced to the area, the acreage of some current crops are rearranged, and some of the current crops in the cropping pattern are eliminated. Water distribution systems for the two scenarios are designed to meet the irrigation requirements of the cropping patterns. Finally, the recommended scenario is that having the highest net benefit to distribution system cost ratio.

1996-1997

May HAMED

American University of Beirut / Faculty of Engineering

Water is essential for life and for a mass of productive activities. Today, the most easily accessible parts of renewable freshwater resources have already been exploited. Generally, a country or a region will experience water scarcity when water supplies fall below 1000 cubic meters per person per year. Thus, rapid population growth is leading to alleviate food problems and increasing water scarcity.

Optimizing food production per unit water is becoming essential to sustain agriculture, conserving water, meeting the increasing demand on food and fiber. The objectives of this study were: first, to estimate the water production efficiency, and second to model water need for agriculture as a function of per capita daily consumption.

To estimate the minimum water requirements needed to produce the different food ingredients for a balanced diet per capita per day a linear programming model was used. Three scenarios were used, where each scenario was subjected to certain constraints. The first scenario was subjected to serving constraint, the second scenario was subjected to calorie constraint and the last scenario was subjected to, serving, calorie, and budget constraint.

The economic constraint had been formulated into four different alternatives of budgets, starting from 3000 to 11000 LL. Also item prices were changed to reflect the prices for three different periods according to cost price index. There were slight differences between the minimum water requirements among the three scenarios, but a substantial difference was among different alternatives in scenario three. The minimum water requirement decreased with allowable number of servings per person on a daily basis, this decrease followed a hyperbolic shape for each budget allocation. On the other hand, there was a linear relationship between the minimum water required per capita per day, and the budget allocated per person on daily basis.

The results showed that the net minimum water required for a healthy diet was 790 cubic meter per capita per year and a net maximum of 1332 cubic meters per capita per year. The results obtained will help the decision makers to allocate the needed water for agriculture as a function of food consumption and population growth.

1997-1998

Simon SALAMEH

American University of Beirut / Faculty of Engineering

Environmental considerations, prospects of exhaustion of traditional energy sources and increasing prices in the generation of electric power have provoked in recent years considerable interest in the production of electric energy from renewable power sources. Furthermore, difficult global economic and political conditions are tending to make countries depend more on their own resources and rely less on imported resources.

Lebanon is considered as a country where renewable energy is abundant. So far, the renewable energy participation in Lebanese electricity generation is still insignificant. It is true that renewable generation is more costly that the conventional generation, but other factors such as emissions and efficiency are taken into consideration in addition to cost in modern distribution. These factors greatly favor the use of renewable energy.

This thesis will shed light on the effect of optimizing and redesigning an existing Lebanese distribution network when upgraded with renewable energies and where part of its current load is met by other forms of energy technologies (wood, natural gas, diesel oil, etc…). The optimizing technique will be based on fuzzy multiobjective programming. A Sensitivity analysis will be conducted to account for assumptions made and uncertain data. Load flow simulation will try to assess voltage drop and losses due to renewable integration. Finally, the thesis will conclude on the results and present some recommendations for future work.

1997-1998

Garcia CHABENNE

Université Saint-Esprit De Kaslik / Faculté de l’Agronomie

Environmental considerations, prospects of exhaustion of traditional energy sources and increasing prices in the generation of electric power have provoked in recent years considerable interest in the production of electric energy from renewable power sources. Furthermore, difficult global economic and political conditions are tending to make countries depend more on their own resources and rely less on imported resources.

Lebanon is considered as a country where renewable energy is abundant. So far, the renewable energy participation in Lebanese electricity generation is still insignificant. It is true that renewable generation is more costly that the conventional generation, but other factors such as emissions and efficiency are taken into consideration in addition to cost in modern distribution. These factors greatly favor the use of renewable energy.

This thesis will shed light on the effect of optimizing and redesigning an existing Lebanese distribution network when upgraded with renewable energies and where part of its current load is met by other forms of energy technologies (wood, natural gas, diesel oil, etc…). The optimizing technique will be based on fuzzy multiobjective programming. A Sensitivity analysis will be conducted to account for assumptions made and uncertain data. Load flow simulation will try to assess voltage drop and losses due to renewable integration. Finally, the thesis will conclude on the results and present some recommendations for future work.

1997-1998

Maroun EL KASSOUF

Université Saint-Joseph de Beyrouth / ESIB

The objective of the project “Typology of Raw Urban Waste Water” can be divided into two parts:

  • Identify the characteristics of raw urban wastewater generated in some areas of Beirut that can be generalized throughout the capital.
  • Apply static settling tests and physicochemical tests on these effluents using two types of coagulants: a mineral coagulant (Commercial FeCl3 Ferric Chloride) and a cationic organic coagulant (K4526 supplied by Degrémont), with the aim of :
  • determine the abatement of pollution (COD, MES, …) that can occur by a simple primary static or physicochemical treatment.
  • determine the fractionation of the raw effluents studied.

The results of these tests can help to evaluate the treatability of the effluents within the wastewater treatment plants and to optimize the response of the sizing and simulation models of these stations according to the characteristics of the effluents.

The technical approach of this project consists in addition to the characterization of the effluents, the determination of the decantable, coagulable and soluble fractions of the urban effluents, thanks to the use of simple tests.

Three regions were chosen to collect samples:

  • The region of Ras Beirut which is a purely residential area
  • The region of Bourj Hammoud which is a residential and commercial area
  • The area within the Ghadir River watershed that includes a residential and commercial area covering much of the southern suburbs of Beirut and some mountainous villages reaching the village of Aaley, and the Kfarchima Industrial Zone and Choueifat.

1998-1999

Rania RAMADAN

American University of Beirut / Faculty of Engineering

In this work, several wind-solar energy conversion systems were modeled and assessed using probabilistic techniques.

The first system consists of several wind turbines (wind farm) connected to a load and a battery storage. The wind farm may contain identical or different wind turbine classes. The modeling of the system was based upon a comprehensive procedure to estimate the joint probability distribution function of the total available wind power and that of the turbines operating modes due to hardware failure. A methodology was developed to use the proposed model to determine an upper limit on the size of the battery storage required for a given number of turbines to satisfy the load with a certain expected energy not supplied.

The second system is composed of wind farm, several photovoltaic modules (solar park), and a battery storage feeding a load. The model takes into consideration outages due to the primary energy fluctuations and hardware failure, and the dependency between the energy resources and the load. Methodology was developed to determine an upper limit on the size of the battery storage required to satisfy a given load profile taking into consideration the charging/discharging of the batteries.

The third system comprises several diesel units, wind farm, solar park and battery storage feeding a load. The model allows the simulation of a diesel system with a solar-wind farm considering system stability, outages due to hardware failure and primary energy fluctuations. It is based on a modification of the convolution method, which considers a given penetration level selected by the utility for stability consideration. The production costs of the diesel units are then deduced from the expected energy not supplied using a unit de-convolution in reverse economic order. A methodology is also presented to determine the size of the battery storage based on the excess wind energy available during operation, or that disconnected for stability consideration, while accounting for the charging/discharging cycles.

1998-1999

Salim SARKIS

University of Balamand / Faculty of Engineering

The project is to investigate the potentials and possibilities of electrical generation via wind turbine. Special attention is directed to the interpretation of wind generation characteristics and parameters found in Lebanon and linking the electrical energy to the Lebanese electrical grid.

Although much of the wind energy research is very well established and boomed globally (USA, Europe, India and China), in Lebanon it is never used. At a time that climate scientist are increasingly concerned about carbon dioxide emissions from coal and diesel plants, and that nuclear industry is dying, the significance of a major new source of electricity is clear.

There are many motives and feasibility criteria for wind power generation in Lebanon. They include the need for increasing the Lebanese electrical capacity, reducing air pollution, alternative energy sources, and prices and availability of oil. The work will include literature survey of the current wind energy development and application. Economic, technological, and practical implementation aspects are to be considered.

Using wind turbine as additional energy source can prove useful to EDL by providing a nonconventional means for meeting rural demand. By reducing the loads at the end of heavily used transmission lines, EDL can avoid constructing costly new transmission capacity. EDL can reduce loads by boosting conservation or by installing modular sources of generation, such as small wind turbines, close to the point of demand.

1999-2000

Hamdi SALHAB

American University of Beirut / Faculty of Engineering

A Pricing Policy for a Growing Electricity Market (Hamdi Salhab – American University of Beirut, Faculty of Engineering and Architecture – 1999-00)

Introduction :

The electricity sector is a main part of the energy sector which in turn is a major component of the country’s macro economic model. Nowadays, the electricity sector in most countries lay under the burden of severe debts due to the large investments and rising cost of power production, transmission, and distribution. On the other hand, the demand for electric power keeps expanding at a rate faster than the development of the supply means which are constrained by several technical, financial, and manpower related factors for a large number of developing countries.

Moreover, the supply demand policy for the power sector is subject to different constraints such as social equity needs, prevention of unemployment, inadequate usage of resources, inefficient pricing of electricity, sector taxing policy regarding sector surpluses, cross subsidies, incorrect price signals, and load pattern behavior. A key factor to the cost effective design, planning, maintenance, and operation of the power sector is the implementation of an appropriate tariff structure and pricing policy.

Objective :

Traditionally, electric power pricing policy in most countries has been determined mainly on the basis of financial or accounting criteria that meets the utility’s financial requirements of its operation and future expansion. Such financial or accounting criteria could be raising sufficient sales revenues to meet operating expenses and debt service requirements while providing an acceptable contribution towards the capital required for future expansion plans. However, in recent times several new factors, like rapid demand growth and fuel price increases, have arisen and pushed towards the implementation of economic principles for the purpose of producing and consuming electric power efficiently, while conserving scarce resources and meeting other various national objectives. More recently, the power economists have focused their attention on the objectives of efficiency in its national context rather than its supply side only. The implementation of such economic principles could have a significant effect on the demand side, mainly through the application of appropriate tariff policies based on the principles of marginal cost theory. Moreover, in this competition age where different privatization approaches principles prevail and with development of the state of the art techniques in metering and control, such tariff policies could serve as one of the main tools for the purpose of restructuring the power sector and electric utilities.

In brief, the objectives of this thesis are (1) to provide an overview of the economic principles, tariff policies, and engineering economic models in power sector (2) to analyze all factors affecting production, transmission, and distribution of electricity with the possibility of assessing these costs for different scenarios considering the uncertainty of those factors (3) to build a software package for LRMC (Long Run Marginal Cost) and SRMC (Short Run Marginal Cost) and modify this software algorithms to account for the specifics of the power sectors under fast growth rate in developing countries (4) to recommend the use of the state of the art methods and techniques developed for the competition age of the power sector and implement them on utilities under centralized planning and control (5) to implement all the above for the specifics of Lebanese electric power sector especially that the Lebanese electric utility lies under the burden of the costs of rehabilitation, reconstruction and expansion plans presently being carried on.


Plan of work :

  1. A wide Literature survey which involve a comprehensive overview over the latest economical concepts including a comparative analysis between marginal cost based tariff and average cost criterias.
  2. Determination of all elements contributing to the total cost of production, transmission, and distribution of electric power for fast growing sectors in developing countries and classifying those elements with flexibility to assess different costs scenarios for different modes of power sectors.

  3. Designing an algorithm to calculate LRMC and SRMC with the consideration of uncertain factors.

    1- Use state of the art techniques and methodologies to build marginal cost algorithms

    2- Modify such techniques to meet the requirements of the power sectors under fast growth rate.

    3- Implementation of the algorithm using software tools.

  4. Implement a trade-off methodology between LRMC and SRMC in order to determine the actual cost of the kw-hr.

  5. Propose a tariff structure and a pricing methodology that best fast growing power sectors.

    1- Time Dimension :

     Daily Dimension : Determination off-peak, intermediate, peak periods

    – Yearly Dimension : Determination of seasonal peaks and off peaks

    2- Price Dimension :

    – Determination in which time periods to use Marginal cost and when to use average cost methodology

    3- Present economic effects of proposed tariff structure :

    – Tariff versus Annual personal income

    – Tariff versus minimum salary

  6. Implement all the above for the specifics of Lebanese electric power sector and provide recommendations.

1999-2000

Rabih HADDAD

University of Balamand / Faculty of Engineering

1.0 Preamble:

Ever since history was recorded, Lebanon has been known and envied for its fresh waters. The combination of its climate, geography, vegetation and topography has all contributed in one way or another to our massive wealth of water supply and to its sustainability. 

Lebanese water resources can very broadly be classified into two groups : surface waters and underground waters. The former is made up of a number of rivers, streams, naturally occurring fresh water springs whereas the latter includes many underground water streams and artesian wells.

In terms of attitude, the Lebanese have generally been passive towards their water resources, and still lack the full appreciation for the importance of such a natural resource. As such, their general approach has lacked the strategic planning required for its future sustainability, organisation and protection. It has to be mentioned that the works of the late Ibrahim Abd El Al [1] are true exception to the way the Lebanese treat their natural gifts and their waters in particular.

It is common knowledge nowadays that these resources are being depleted very quickly through overuse, lack of maintenance, neglect, unregulated contamination and haphazard irrigation. It is for the fisrt time that one hears government agencies and local authorities talking about the severity and the urgency of the depletion of our water reserves. This, to the extent of even considering desalination of sea water as inevitable in the near future. This is despite the fact that millions of gallons of water, whether from precipitation, rivers or streams, are lost to the sea every year.

It is obvious from the above discussion that a thorough, detailed and accurate assessment of the water situation is urgently required for the whole country ; and this is surely beyond the scope of this proposal. Prior to any such exercise, there should be available reliable, up-to-date data on all our water resources, and this is where the University of Balamand could make its contribution. The proposal detailed hereunder outlines a field study in which data is gathered on a very valuable aspect of our water system, often taken for granted and seldom enters our calculations ; namely fresh water springs and wells. These are literally scattered up and down the country, and many citizens continue to rely on them for their drinking and domestic use. However, up to the present, their numbers, flow rates, nature of use and quality of their waters are not yet quantified.

This proposal outlines the basic methods for acquiring such data and sets out the means for its analysis using modern day technology. It seeks to combine the strengths of satellite based Global Positioning Systems with the capabilities of Geographical Information Systems for data analysis. In so doing a global picture of fresh water availability from natural springs can be built which is valuable in setting out future distribution strategies in the north of the country. North Lebanon is chosen in the first instance as the target medium for the study due the widespread of springs in this Muhafaza, as well as to its proximity to the University.

2.0 The Proposal:

2.1 Aim

The aim of the proposed project is to design a Geographical Information System for the analysis of fresh water resources in Lebanon. 

2.2 Objectives

The aim of the project will be achieved by fulfilling the following set of objectives :

  1. Design a data log for a typical water source in which field data is recorded.
  2. Acquire exact geographical locations for all naturally occurring as well as artificial wells in rural areas of North Lebanon using GPS.
  3. Assess typical characteristics of each outlet such as flow rate, water quality, contamination and nature of use.
  4. Build a GIS in which all acquired information can be stored and analysed.

2.3 Elaboration

The project proposed herein will start by deciding on the attributes necessary to allow for an objective assessment of fresh water springs and artificial wells. Also at this stage careful evaluation of the exact outcomes has to be conducted in order to ensure that all necessary data is gathered from field stations. Thereafter, a field study will be initiated in all seven Qada’as of the North Lebanon Muhafaza. A team of Engineering researchers will search and identify locations of Artesian and naturally occurring springs in order to compile the necessary information. It has to be emphasised that it is not the intent of this study to search for data in the urban areas like Tripoli or Batroun, but to establish data from more rural regions in Akkar, Koura, Dinniyyeh, etc.

Once a station is identified, specific information will be logged from it. To begin with, a GPS will log its exact geographical location. In addition, data pertaining to its discharge, nature of use, quality, etc., will also be noted. Such information will be input to a specially designed databse which will allow for its proper management in terms of entry, retrieval, presentation and analysis. Specific queries will be built which will search the database for specific criteria such as total water availability, contamination, population dependence, nature of use, and so on.

Database information can at this stage be easily linked to the GIS. This will allow for a number of features not possible within conventional databases to be investigated. First, the global picture of water springs and wells could be seen on digitised maps. Also, the geographical feature of each station could be assessed relative to other stations, settlements, villages and the like. Additionally, zonal analysis could be conducted in order to investigate global water aspects in a particular area or region of dimensions and extents specified by the user.

The University of Balamand has gained considerable experience in GIS technology through working on a number of related projects [3,4]. The work proposed herein will be conducted in the newly established GIS laboratory, which at present houses some excellent and modern facilities.

3.0 Program of Work:

The objectives of the project presented in the previous sections will be achieved in a clearly defined chronological sequence, which includes five distinct stages. Preliminary preparations and literature studies will be followed by data collection and field work. Compiled data will form the entered to a structured database for query design and analysis and GIS work. Subsequent results will be discussed and disseminated through a final thesis, conference and scientific journal publications.

3.1 Preparatory Work

In the early stages of the project efforts will be directed at ensuring that all the necessary requirements for the conclusion project are available. A literature review on the subject of water resources and GIS in the region has to be initiated. Additionally, careful attention has to be paid at defining the exact attributes and details which have to be gathered from a specific site. In this respect objective data sheets will have to be designed, validated and compared. It is anticipated that this work should last for two months from the day of the start of the project. In line with this work, a database compatible with data requirements has to be designed and tested to allow for data entry, storage, retrieval and query. It is anticipated that phase of work should last for the first two months of the project.

3.2 Data Collection and Field Studies:

Following the preparatory work, the field study will be started. This will involve a lengthy and thorough process of data acquisition from the rural region of North Lebanon. University researchers will be scouting for fresh water outlets by talking to the local population and authorities. Once a fresh water source is identified, its exact geographical location is coded in terms of latitude and longitude using GPS. Further details, such as nature of use, water quality and flow rates will also be noted. It must be emphasized that some of these attributes are qualitative and must be obtained by word-of-mouth from end-users in the particular locality.

As far as flow measurements are concerned, those in the first instance will be done rather crudely but over a number of times from a particular source in order to assess seasonal fluctuations. This is inline with the project objectives which seeks to build a global picture of the water situation in the north which can act as the platform for further improvement and expansion in due course. The data collection phase should span over six months.

3.3 Data Entry and Query Design

Following the data acquisition process, data will have to be entered to the data base. This will have to be an ongoing process in which data is constantly updated and queried. In parallel with the above, geographical location of fresh water sources will have to be entered onto the GIS. Data base queries will be linked to the GIS so that resources can be globally compared, assessed and analyzed. This will be a phase parallel to b) above.

3.4 Data Analysis

Data analysis will be performed on two types of results, statistical and geographical. In either case the types of analysis will be dependent on the quality of the data acquired. This stage of the project is anticipated to last for two months.

3.5 Report Writing and Results Dissemination

The last two months of the project will be devoted to writing up the findings of the research. A thesis will be produced compiling the data acquired, its analysis and its significance. Dissemination of these results will take place in scientific journals as well as local and international conferences.

The chart below outlines the project work flow.

 
Month
Activity
01
02
03
04
05
06
07
08
09
10
11
12
Preliminary Work & Preparations
Data Collection & Field Study
Data Entry & Query Design
Progress Report
Data Analysis
Report Writing



4.0 Closure:

It is the Author’s opinion that the work proposed herein constitutes a very necessary first step in the process of us as a nation knowing exactly what we have. Water has always been our one and most valuable resource and this proposal takes us closer to the modern management and sustainability of our water supplies.

References:

  1. Abd El Al, I. « The Complete Works », Vol. 1,2,3, Published by the Association of the Friends of Ibrahim Abd El Al, 1995.
  2. Voivontas, D., Tsiligridis, and Assimacopoulos, D. « Solar Potential for Water Heating Explored by GIS ». Solar Energy, Vol 62, N°6, pp 419-427, 1998.
  3. Haddad, R. « A GIS for the Power Network at the University of Balamand, BS Thesis, Electrical Engineering Department, University of Balamand, February 2000.
  4. Jabbour, I. « A Database and a GIS for Landmines in Lebanon » BS Thesis, Computer Science Department, University of Balamand, June 2000.

1999-2000

Basma BOU SAMRA

Université Saint-Esprit De Kaslik – Université Saint-Joseph de Beyrouth / Sciences Agronomiques

I- INTRODUCTION

Throughout the world and especially in the Mediterranean basin, water is an essential vital element for the development of countries. 
In Lebanon after a long period of instability, the country has resumed normal life. This path is marked by a population growth and a fairly rapid economic development from where, problems of quantity and quality of water begin to appear. This resource, limited and random (4.8 km2), is experiencing increasing pressure and competition for its quality by the different sources of pollution.
In addition, the different sectors of the country do not consume water at the same rate; it is agriculture which constitutes the predominant sector of use; almost 70% of the total amount of water used in 1993 with an irrigated area of ​​87,500 ha is 25% of the usable agricultural area. 
The mismanagement of water in coastal agriculture has led to high salinity of the soil and pollution of groundwater. Other problems may arise soon after this mismanagement of water and fertilizers such as fatigue and soil degradation, increasing the salinity of irrigation water which induces a drop in yield. Population pressure will do the rest:
The intrusion of seawater (see Fig. 1) into artesian wells on the coastline is a growing phenomenon due to an anarchic watering of these wells.

 
Figure 1:
The distribution of freshwater layers in a karstic aquifer, floating on saline waters and gradually emerging in seawater.
Left: Thickness of freshwater layers during the dry season. 
Right: Intrusion of salt water in the form of a cone and danger of contamination of fresh water caused by over-pumping (source: Cavazza, 1988).

This intrusion will lead to a deterioration in the quality of soils affecting the yields of coastal crops as well as to the contamination of ground water tables. The problem of seawater intrusion is very common in the world and according to Todd (1959), the first serious study of this problem was carried out by the two European investigators W. Baden Ghyben (1889) and B. Herzberg (1901). Other more recent studies have also been established in different parts of the world (Bakker 2000, Person et al., 1998, Longevin et al., 1998, Karahano? Lu 1997, Bonacci and RT Bonacci 1997, Padella and Sanjulian , 1997, Huyakorn et al., 1996 and Emekli et al., 1996).

II- MATERIAL AND METHODS

The initially selected area extended from Batroun in northern Lebanon to Remeilé in southern Lebanon. But the survey carried out before starting the work showed that the agricultural regions of the North, spreading from Batroun to Tabarja, are supplied with irrigation water by the rivers of the region, mainly by Nahr Ibrahim and Nahr El Jaouz. As a result, artesian wells are not a representative source of irrigation water. These results led to the exclusion of these northern coastal regions from the study. And the regions between Tabarja and Beirut, because they are not considered agricultural. The study area was limited to the southern regions of Mount Lebanon classified as agricultural, with no water supply.
The finally chosen areas are: Hadath, Choueifat, Jieh and Rmeilé. 14 wells were selected to respect geographic distribution, farm sizes, crop diversity and well accessibility given the high costs of using electricity. 
These 14 wells (see map) are distributed as follows: 

– 1 in Hadath, 
– 5 in Choueifat 
– 6 in Jieh 
– 2 in Remilé

In the study area, the parent rock is karstic in nature covered by red soils (Terra Rossa) (Soil Recognition Map of Lebanon, 1956). Normal red soils are residual decalcification clays. . These fissured soils favor the intrusion of salt water into groundwater. The mechanism of intrusion of seawater into karstic springs is individual given the great underground variability of karst geology and morphology, especially in a calcareous (or karstic) coast (Bonacci and RT Bonacci, 1997). From a geological point of view, the selected area is classified in C4-5, ie limestone formation of the Cenomanian-Turonian type, with the exception of Rmeilé classified in C6 or Senonian limestone (Geological Map of Lebanon, 1955) .
Water samples from these wells were sampled for a period from July 1999 to April 2000 with one sample every 15 days.
A complete physico-chemical analysis of the samples will be done in order to be able to quantify the state of salinization of the artesian wells in the region by the effect of the intrusion of the sea water. Sampling is done by taking every 15 minutes , a volume of about half a liter of well water, over an hour of time, from the start of pumping. These samples taken are intended for the measurement of the electrical conductivity and the pH, and every half-hour an additional sample is taken for the analysis of the chemical elements (Ca ++, Mg ++, Na +, K +, Cl-, NO3-, HCO 3). In total, six samples are taken from each well. Each of these is marked by a label determining the well code, the date and time of sampling. More,



III- MAIN RESULTS EXPECTED

The Study will give a clear and objective idea of ​​the dynamics of salinization of artesian wells by the intrusion of seawater, based on Simpson’s classification, reported by Todd (1959) , determined by the ratio chlorine / (carbonate + bicarbonate) and expressed in meq.g / l: 

Cl- / (CO3– + HCO3-) 
– 0.5 – Normal water in the aquifers. 
– 1.3 – Slight contamination of the water table. 
– 2.8- Moderate contamination of the aquifer 
– 6.6 – Harmful contamination of the aquifer 
– 15.5- Severe contamination of the aquifer 
– ± 200- Seawater

The results, spread out over ten months, will reveal the state of the art of salinity in this region according to the time of year and the duration of the pumping. Thus an assessment of water quality according to the standards indicated by FAO (1985) will be possible. This seems especially important as the region is characterized by a large expansion of sheltered crops that are very sensitive to salinity problems. The results of the study will eventually justify the establishment of a research project on the use of saline water in agriculture. 



Bibliography

1. Bakker M. (2000) The size of the freshwater zone with an infiltration, water and resources research, 36 (1), 109 – 117.

2. Bonacci, O. and TR Bonacci, (1997), sea water intrusion in coastal karst springs: example of the blah? spring (croutia). J. Hydrol. 42 (11), 89-100. 

3. Map of salt recognition of Lebanon at 1 / 200,000 E, Beirut, 1956. Lebanese Republic, Ministry of Agriculture, Directorate of Education and Extension, Libano Agricultural Station -French. 

4. Geological map of Lebanon at 1 / 20,000 E, Beirut – 1955. Lebanese Republic, Ministry of Public Works. 

5. Cavazza, L. 1988. Irrigation systems and techniques for saline water. IN: Reuse of low quality water for irrigation in Mediterranean countries. Water research center, January 16-21, Cairo, Egypt, Mediterranean Options, No. 1, 49: 57.

6. Emekli, N. Karahano? Lu, N., Yazicigil, H. Doywan, (1996), Numerical simulation of saltwater intrusion in a “Groundwater” basin, Water Environ. Res., 685 – 855. 

7. FAO, 1985. The quality of water agriculture. Bull FAO Irrig. Drainage, No. 29. 

8. Ghyben, WB (1889), Nota in Verban puts de voorgenomen putboring nabij Amesterdam (Notes on the remarkable results of the proposed drilling in Amesterdam) (In Dutch) Tijdschrift van let koninklijk, Van Ingenieurs Institute , 8 – 22. 

9. Herzberg, B. (1901) Die wasserversorgung einiger Nordseebäder. Gasblenchtung und Wasserversorgung, 44, 842 – 844.

10. Huyakron PS, Wu YS, and NS Park, Multiphase approach to the numerical solution of a water salt water intrusion problem interface, water resources research, 32 (1), 

93-102 , 1996. 11. Karahano? Lu, N. , (1997), Assessments of sea-water intrusion in a coastal aquifer by using correlation, main component, and factor analyzes, water. About. Res, 69 (3), 331 – 341. 

12. Longevin, CD, Stewart MT, and CM Beaudin, (1998), Effects of seawater canals on water resources: An example from Big Pine Key, Florida, Cround Water, 36 (3), 503-513. 

13. Padilla, F., and JC Sanjulian, (1997), Modeling Sea-Water Intrusion with Open Boundary Conditions, Ground Water, 35 (4).

14. Person, M., JZ Taylor, and SL, (1998), Dingman, Sharp interface of water intrusion and wellhead delineation on Nantucket Island, Massachusetts, Ground Water, 36 (5), 731-742. 

15. Todd , DK 1959. Ground Water Hydrology. John Wiley and Sons. Inc p. 277 – 294.

2000-2001

Rabih HAIDAR

University of Balamand / Faculty of Engineering

2000-2001

Carole SALIBY

Université Saint-Esprit De Kaslik / Faculty of Agriculture

Summary:The area of ​​our study extends from Choueifat to Rmeylé, a traditional agricultural region. It envisages a problem of urban development that will be accentuated in the future. This urban development leads to poor management of water in agriculture due to the lack of communal irrigation networks, which pushes the farmer to use his own water source mainly based on exploitation of groundwater through artesian wells without any restrictions. The uncontrolled welling of the wells has led to a deterioration in the quality of the water tables following pollution by salt water and an increase in soil salinity values, not forgetting the geological and pedological characteristics of this region which accentuate the intrusion of the seawater and consequently the increase of salinity and bacterial contamination caused by industrial, domestic, urban and agricultural effluents. To these problems, are added the deficiency and the lack of precision of the Lebanese law on the one hand and the exceptional state of the instability in Lebanon on the other hand.

Key words: water, agriculture, seawater intrusion, urbanization, pollution, water quality.

Introduction: Lebanon has resumed normal life and reconstruction has started after a long period of instability. This path is characterized by a demographic pressure and a rather rapid economic development without however following a very clear planning. Hence the problems of quantity and quality of water that are beginning to appear (Mutasem, 2002). This limited and random source is 8,600 mm3 / year, of which 50% is lost by evapotranspiration, 8% by flows to neighboring countries, 12% by infiltration of groundwater, leaving 2,600 mm3 of surface and underground water which are potentially available, of which just about 2,000 mm3 are exploitable. Traditional and future water demands change considerably due to the different assessment processes, particularly in relation to annual population growth, average per capita consumption, land available for agriculture, average consumption per hectare and future potential for industrialization. A water deficit is estimated in the next 10-15 years (Mutasem, 2002).

Demand for water has traditionally been shared between three main sectors, agriculture, domestic use and industry, which do not consume water at the same rate; it is agriculture that is the predominant sector of use, almost 70% of the total amount of water used in 1993 with an irrigated area of ​​87,500 ha or 25% of usable area (FAO, 1996). This source has more constraints and competition from users and also some deterioration of its quality by different sources of pollution. Thus, for domestic wastewater, poor regulation of sewage disposal and their networks are unsatisfactory, excessive use of groundwater resources for Domestic supply causes bacterial contamination of surface and groundwater leading to health problems and saltwater intrusion into the layers of coastal aquifers. Added to this are industrial wastewater, industrial effluents that contain (depending on the type of industry) biodegradable substances that may be harmful or toxic, mineral-bearing waters, organic load, toxic waters from industries causing temporary or permanent pollution of the water. For urban wastewater, the mixture of domestic and industrial wastewater, eg water from barracks, hospitals and shops, these waters are more diluted than domestic water and as a result the pollutant load is much less reduced. The same applies to agricultural pollutant discharges where the uncontrolled use of surface and groundwater for irrigation, over-fertilization, mismanagement of crop residues, animal manure and uncontrolled use of pesticides cause problems of lack. seasonal water, an increase in soil salinity, contamination of groundwater by pesticides and nitrates inducing health problems. Rainwater and pollutants from the atmosphere can be carried by rainwater running off the ground and infiltrating into surface water and groundwater. The main ones are SO2, NO2 which oxidize in the presence of the water vapor, and the rain is acidified by the presence of the sulfuric acid and nitric acid. Dust absorbs metal traces such as lead from exhaust gases contributing to the pollution of surface water by rainwater. Thus the acidification of surface water is attributed to the imbalance of the calco-carbonic buffer caused by acid rain. These contain 2/3 sulfuric acid and 1/3 nitric acid (Bonteux, 1983). They acidify surface water when the calco-carbonic buffer is insufficient. Water used for energy production (Zouk Thermal Power Plant), thermal power plants discharging cooling water into coastal waters cause a rise in water temperature, which can lead to changes in the ecology marine and cause possible damage to the fishery.

On the other hand, since the last 30 years of the 20th century, agriculture on the Lebanese coast has almost become an urban agriculture (IAURIF, 1999). Urban agriculture began to spread everywhere along the coast following several forces, including the spread of industrial zones and anarchic urbanization during the war. In this urban agriculture, there are several types of farmers: the small farmers who work with their families. They do not have monoculture, they choose several crops or livestock to minimize the risks for example (Malongo, 1992), the big farmers (few are the ones who work the land themselves) they always have workers, they own the larger urban farms, choose a single high-value intensive crop such as greenhouse crops (Malongo, 1992), agricultural cooperatives where small-scale farmers form cooperatives to minimize the burden and thereby increase profits (Atkinson, 1992). Thus on the Lebanese coast, several types of spaces are cultivated (around houses, common areas and public reserves, roads and highways, rivers, steep slopes …).

In addition, the mismanagement of water in agriculture due to the lack of collective irrigation networks leads the farmer to use his own source of water mainly based on the exploitation of groundwater by via artesian wells without any restrictions. Between 1992 and 1995, more than 2,000 wells were added to a total of 10,000 wells, mainly in the southern coastal region of Mount Lebanon in the north and in central Bekaa (FAO, 1996). This uncontrolled welling has caused groundwater pollution by salt water and an increase in soil salinity values ​​(El Moujabber and Bou Samara, 2001, Atallah et al., 1997).

Methodology:The study area (Choueifat in the north to Rmeylé in the south) is located in the southern coastal region of Mount Lebanon. This traditional farming zone is considering a problem of urban development that will be accentuated in the future because of the projects being studied (the southern highway, the improvement of the road network, the public transport systems: the buses, coaches, railways, industrial zones, cement plants, power stations, oil terminals, resorts and tourist complexes …) (IAURIF, 1999). This zone also has geological and pedological peculiarities. From a geological point of view, the region of Choueifat shows vast patches of sandy red earth with pebbles. They are fluviatile deposits belonging to the quaternary. The friable and non-compact material favors a horizontal infiltration of the sea water. The latter takes, under the effect of the pumping, an ascending direction thus reaching the water table. As for the Saadiyat-Rmeylé region, the Cenomanian-Turonian marly limestones are the main outcrops except Rmeylé (Senonian limestone) (Dubertret, 1995). It should be pointed out that there are flexures that are tectonic accidents (FAO, 1973). These fairly wide flexures make the medium permeable to marine invasion and vice versa. Diapers that dip from place to place are important. Slope steepness and dipping promote runoff and activate the flow of water to the sea. FAO (1973) has determined the position of the sources of freshwater outcropping in the sea, which states that the area is permeable. As a result of population growth, rapid urban expansion and the consumption of space, the spread of urban agriculture and the excessive pumping of well water, these freshwater sources have disappeared, leading to to the invasion of fresh water by sea water.

To these problems, is added the deficiency and the lack of precision of the Lebanese law on the one hand and the exceptional state of the instability in Lebanon on the other hand. Indeed, the deficiency of the law appears most in the article 7 of Decree n ° 14438, promulgated on May 2, 1970, which allows any person to dig a well in his own ground not exceeding 150m of depth. While the exploitation of a coastal karst aquifer is a complex phenomenon, because it does not follow the laws of the underground hydrodynamics especially the law of Darcy (1856). From there, the difficulty of water management in this type of aquifer. The study of hydrogeological structures, the Piezometric mapping and pumping experiments are needed to establish a conceptual model to prevent or reduce the intrusion of seawater into coastal karst springs. In addition it is essential to mention that the main crops of the study area are tomato, cucumber and strawberry. The latter and especially the strawberry have a low tolerance to salinity.

Objective: To give the evolution of groundwater quality in this region in space and time. In addition, it is a question of quantifying the pollution or the contamination of these waters used both in agriculture and in domestic use.

Bibliography:

Attallah, T., Darwish, T. and El Moujabber, M, 1997. Cultural practices and soil salinity of greenhouses in Lebanon. International Conference on: Water management, salinity and pollution towards sustainable irrigation in the Mediterranean Region. Bari-Italy, 22-26 September. 115-123

Darcy, H., 1856. The public fountains of the city of Dijon, Paris.

Dubertret, L., 1955. Geological map of Lebanon at 1 / 20,000. Beirut, Lebanese Republic, Ministry of Public Works.

FAO 1973. Project hydroagricultural development of Lebanon. Infrared Airborne Thermometry, 16pp

FAO, 1996. Irrigation in the near east region. Water reports.

IAURF1999. Environmental assessment of the coast of Lebanon. Lebanese Republic, Council for Development and Reconstruction.

2001-2002

Iman AL KHAZEN

Université Saint-Esprit De Kaslik / Faculty of Agriculture

Summary: Erosions are a huge problem all over the world. They can be found in two different forms: wind erosion by wind and hydraulic erosion caused by precipitation. This precipitation is distributed either by soil surface storage, infiltration into the soil, or surface runoff. Erosion is the result of man’s lack of respect for nature and a huge expansion of urbanization. It can cause significant damage from an agricultural development point of view as it can destroy small villages and kill people by floods and avalanches. This great problem threatens the whole world, but the developed countries are doing better than third world countries, hence the need to organize programs of struggle to take care of the vegetation cover and the good rural development. urban. It is therefore necessary to study the percentage of land investment to calculate the rate of vegetation cover that must be maintained in relation to urbanized soils.

Key words: Hydraulic erosion, runoff, urbanization, precipitation, forest cover.

Introduction: The urban development of societies is in a state of continual growth. This urbanization leads to the destruction of many forests. We are witnessing a massive deforestation of hills and mountains. These arid mountains can no longer hold water from rainfall or the formation of runoff resulting in huge amounts of soil and different materials. The erosion is enormous, which causes destruction in the developed surfaces and a very great loss of water. Urban expansion and road construction are the biggest culprits for this problem. In the case where the resource to be protected is water, we seek to develop practices that reduce runoff, erosion, and pollution (Martin, 1998).

Hydraulic erosion is the most widespread form of erosion, causing massive damage in almost all developing countries. It occurs where steep lands are recklessly cultivated and slightly sloping land is left exposed to heavy rains for some time (FAO, 1993).

Globally, about 25 billion tons of earth are washed away each year, stranded in rivers, then in the oceans. According to estimates by the FAO / UNEP study, 1.3% of Africa north of the equator and 17.1% of the Near East are subject to water erosion (FAO, 1993).

If heavy rainfall, prolonged drought, or high winds can be the direct cause of soil erosion, the real problem is cropping practices that do not take into account the ease with which the soil is washed away by the soil. water or wind. For example, in recent decades overgrazing and overgrazing have caused enormous damage to much of Africa and Asia. In arid regions, the soil is packed around the water points, the vegetation becomes poorer and dies, erosion takes place. Too often, the land becomes a desert, the culmination of erosion and soil degradation. If erosion is the disease of the earth, desertification is its death. In 1987, according to UNEP,

Other examples of agricultural techniques that promote erosion include deep plowing two or three times a year to produce annual crops, the absence of crop rotation, the dissociation of crop and animal production, and the planting of crops. in the direction of the slope and along the contours.

Almost always, it is bare land that is eroding, while land with a plant cover is stable. Erosion often begins at the top of a watershed, on steep slopes that are traditionally forested. However, in recent decades, more and more firewood resources have been exploited. Rural people have been forced to go farther and farther to fuel and cut wood on higher, steeper terrain. In addition, many tropical forests have been deforested to practice agriculture. In 1975 and 1980, 37 million hectares of forest were destroyed in Africa, 12.2 million in Asia and 18.4 million in Central and South America (FAO, 1993).

Proposed work plan:

  • The study is carried out on the western slope of Mount Lebanon and on the Lebanese coast and more precisely the region of “Yahchouch”.
  • Make representative models of the region to be studied.
  • Models with slopes of 50% and 70% contain the same soil profiles of the region.
  • Apply the models to a rainfall similar to that of the region.
  • Harvesting runoff waters and erosive soil following three kinds of soil cover: 
    1. 100% bare soil. 
    2. 100% forest cover. 
    3. 50% forest cover + 50% urbanization.
  • Modeling results using the “RUSLE” as a reference.

Proposal for the methodology: Lebanon, located on the east coast of the Mediterranean has a temperate climate. The microclimates present in the country are mainly due to the presence of two mountain ranges north-south direction: Mount Lebanon and Anti-Lebanon. Winters are short and dry, the sun dominates the rest of the year. The prevailing winds come from the west, from the sea side and are therefore carrying a high rate of humidity. The average humidity is 70% on the coast and decreases as one moves away from it. Annual rainfall varies from 200mm / year to the extreme north of the Béqaa plateau, to 1500mm / year on the peaks of Mount Lebanon. The average rainfall for the country is 843mm / year (El-Fadel, 2002).

Despite its small size (less than 10500 km2), Lebanon has well-differentiated geomorphological regions. It can be divided into 4 main regions, which are:

  • A relatively flat and narrow coastline with an average width of 2-3km and north-south direction.
  • Mount Lebanon, parallel to the coast, with a maximum of 3000m. altitude.
  • The Béqaa plateau, at an average altitude of 900m. Its length is 125km, for a width of 7km to the South and 20km to the North.
  • Anti-Lebanon, also north-south, located east of the Béqaa plateau, can reach an altitude of 2600m (El-Fadel, 2002).

The most prevalent problem in Lebanon is the assessment of the amount of water lost during annual rainfall. This problem is found mainly on the western slope of Mount Lebanon where a good amount of surface runoff occurs.

Rainfall is the cause of a lateral transfer which constitutes a loss of water (Gallien et al, 1995). This lateral transfer, known as lateral runoff, is not constant and affects only sloping (even weak) surfaces subject to violent rainfall (Duchaufour, 1988).

The surface runoff induces severe erosion especially in the absence of vegetation cover because the more water that flows on bare ground and the faster it flows, the greater the energy available to pull and carry the sediments. The erosive force of the water therefore depends on the inclination of the slope (%), its length, the general shape of the terrain and the micro-relief (Jetté, 1998).

The construction of roads and the repeated use of skid trails lead to the disintegration of humus and the exposure of mineral soil to portions of the cutting bed. These exposed surfaces then become vulnerable to the erosive action of water (Jetté, 1998).

The loss of water due to the above parameters results in a decrease in the thickness of the topsoil (Gril and Duvoux, 1991). This reduction of the topsoil can gradually lead to the desertification of the mountain range.

In the study of the regional water balance on the western slope of Mount Lebanon, which is characterized by steep slopes, we used representative models from the Yahchouch region where the study was located. These models are filled with earth from a profile studied in the region. The models, of different slopes, are subject to two kinds of rainfall intensity but the same amount of rain.

The same experiment is carried out for different rates of distribution of vegetation cover and urbanization found on the models.

The application of rainfall with the collection of data will be carried out between March 1 and April 15. The simulation of the data obtained will take place during the month of May based on the method used by the simulation model “RUSLE”.

Objectives of the research: The main objective of the research is to limit as much as possible the loss of water that occurs each time there is a rainfall on the west side of the mountain range of Mount Lebanon. This loss of water leads Lebanon to a shortage of water.

To achieve this goal, various measures and experiences are used to uncover the major causes of the problem and to find ways to fight it.

The measures and experiments to be applied are:

  • Estimated amount of water lost annually during rainy seasons.
  • Estimate of the amount of erosive soil.
  • Study the report runoff / drainage.
  • Effect of urbanization and forest cover on runoff and erosion.
  • Modeling of the results obtained.

Bibliography:

Duchaufour P., 1988. Abstract of pedology. MASSON, 224 pages.

El-Fadel M., 2002. Water Resources in Lebanon Current Situation and Future Needs: p.2.

FAO, 1993. Protect and produce. FAO Rome, Italy, 36 pages.

Gallien E., Bissonnais Y., Eimberck M., Benkhadra H., Ligneau L., Ouvry JF. and Martin P., 1995. Influence of fallow plant cover on runoff and diffuse erosion in cultivated loam soil. Cahiers Agricultures: p. 171-183.

Grill J.-J. and Duvoux B., 1991. Control of runoff and erosion. Ed CEMAGREF: p. 14-15.

Jetté JP, 1998. Forestry practices better adapted to the slopes of Quebec. FORESTRY, Series: Conservation of Forest Resources, Number 5.

Martin P., 1998. Cahiers d’agriculture. 7 (2): p.111-119.

RUSLE, 1991. www.iwr.msu.edu/~ouyangda/rusle/rusle_left.html

2001-2002

Dina SHAMMAS

American University of Beirut / Faculty of Engineering

Summary: Erosions are a huge problem all over the world. They can be found in two different forms: wind erosion by wind and hydraulic erosion caused by precipitation. This precipitation is distributed either by soil surface storage, infiltration into the soil, or surface runoff. Erosion is the result of man’s lack of respect for nature and a huge expansion of urbanization. It can cause significant damage from an agricultural development point of view as it can destroy small villages and kill people by floods and avalanches. This great problem threatens the whole world, but the developed countries are doing better than third world countries, hence the need to organize programs of struggle to take care of the vegetation cover and the good rural development. urban. It is therefore necessary to study the percentage of land investment to calculate the rate of vegetation cover that must be maintained in relation to urbanized soils.

Key words: Hydraulic erosion, runoff, urbanization, precipitation, forest cover.

Introduction: The urban development of societies is in a state of continual growth. This urbanization leads to the destruction of many forests. We are witnessing a massive deforestation of hills and mountains. These arid mountains can no longer hold water from rainfall or the formation of runoff resulting in huge amounts of soil and different materials. The erosion is enormous, which causes destruction in the developed surfaces and a very great loss of water. Urban expansion and road construction are the biggest culprits for this problem. In the case where the resource to be protected is water, we seek to develop practices that reduce runoff, erosion, and pollution (Martin, 1998).

Hydraulic erosion is the most widespread form of erosion, causing massive damage in almost all developing countries. It occurs where steep lands are recklessly cultivated and slightly sloping land is left exposed to heavy rains for some time (FAO, 1993).

Globally, about 25 billion tons of earth are washed away each year, stranded in rivers, then in the oceans. According to estimates by the FAO / UNEP study, 1.3% of Africa north of the equator and 17.1% of the Near East are subject to water erosion (FAO, 1993).

If heavy rainfall, prolonged drought, or high winds can be the direct cause of soil erosion, the real problem is cropping practices that do not take into account the ease with which the soil is washed away by the soil. water or wind. For example, in recent decades overgrazing and overgrazing have caused enormous damage to much of Africa and Asia. In arid regions, the soil is packed around the water points, the vegetation becomes poorer and dies, erosion takes place. Too often, the land becomes a desert, the culmination of erosion and soil degradation. If erosion is the disease of the earth, desertification is its death. In 1987, according to UNEP,

Other examples of agricultural techniques that promote erosion include deep plowing two or three times a year to produce annual crops, the absence of crop rotation, the dissociation of crop and animal production, and the planting of crops. in the direction of the slope and along the contours.

Almost always, it is bare land that is eroding, while land with a plant cover is stable. Erosion often begins at the top of a watershed, on steep slopes that are traditionally forested. However, in recent decades, more and more firewood resources have been exploited. Rural people have been forced to go farther and farther to fuel and cut wood on higher, steeper terrain. In addition, many tropical forests have been deforested to practice agriculture. In 1975 and 1980, 37 million hectares of forest were destroyed in Africa, 12.2 million in Asia and 18.4 million in Central and South America (FAO, 1993).

Proposed work plan:

  • The study is carried out on the western slope of Mount Lebanon and on the Lebanese coast and more precisely the region of “Yahchouch”.
  • Make representative models of the region to be studied.
  • Models with slopes of 50% and 70% contain the same soil profiles of the region.
  • Apply the models to a rainfall similar to that of the region.
  • Harvesting runoff waters and erosive soil following three kinds of soil cover: 
    1. 100% bare soil. 
    2. 100% forest cover. 
    3. 50% forest cover + 50% urbanization.
  • Modeling results using the “RUSLE” as a reference.

Proposal for the methodology: Lebanon, located on the east coast of the Mediterranean has a temperate climate. The microclimates present in the country are mainly due to the presence of two mountain ranges north-south direction: Mount Lebanon and Anti-Lebanon. Winters are short and dry, the sun dominates the rest of the year. The prevailing winds come from the west, from the sea side and are therefore carrying a high rate of humidity. The average humidity is 70% on the coast and decreases as one moves away from it. Annual rainfall varies from 200mm / year to the extreme north of the Béqaa plateau, to 1500mm / year on the peaks of Mount Lebanon. The average rainfall for the country is 843mm / year (El-Fadel, 2002).

Despite its small size (less than 10500 km2), Lebanon has well-differentiated geomorphological regions. It can be divided into 4 main regions, which are:

  • A relatively flat and narrow coastline with an average width of 2-3km and north-south direction.
  • Mount Lebanon, parallel to the coast, with a maximum of 3000m. altitude.
  • The Béqaa plateau, at an average altitude of 900m. Its length is 125km, for a width of 7km to the South and 20km to the North.
  • Anti-Lebanon, also north-south, located east of the Béqaa plateau, can reach an altitude of 2600m (El-Fadel, 2002).

The most prevalent problem in Lebanon is the assessment of the amount of water lost during annual rainfall. This problem is found mainly on the western slope of Mount Lebanon where a good amount of surface runoff occurs.

Rainfall is the cause of a lateral transfer which constitutes a loss of water (Gallien et al, 1995). This lateral transfer, known as lateral runoff, is not constant and affects only sloping (even weak) surfaces subject to violent rainfall (Duchaufour, 1988).

The surface runoff induces severe erosion especially in the absence of vegetation cover because the more water that flows on bare ground and the faster it flows, the greater the energy available to pull and carry the sediments. The erosive force of the water therefore depends on the inclination of the slope (%), its length, the general shape of the terrain and the micro-relief (Jetté, 1998).

The construction of roads and the repeated use of skid trails lead to the disintegration of humus and the exposure of mineral soil to portions of the cutting bed. These exposed surfaces then become vulnerable to the erosive action of water (Jetté, 1998).

The loss of water due to the above parameters results in a decrease in the thickness of the topsoil (Gril and Duvoux, 1991). This reduction of the topsoil can gradually lead to the desertification of the mountain range.

In the study of the regional water balance on the western slope of Mount Lebanon, which is characterized by steep slopes, we used representative models from the Yahchouch region where the study was located. These models are filled with earth from a profile studied in the region. The models, of different slopes, are subject to two kinds of rainfall intensity but the same amount of rain.

The same experiment is carried out for different rates of distribution of vegetation cover and urbanization found on the models.

The application of rainfall with the collection of data will be carried out between March 1 and April 15. The simulation of the data obtained will take place during the month of May based on the method used by the simulation model “RUSLE”.

Objectives of the research: The main objective of the research is to limit as much as possible the loss of water that occurs each time there is a rainfall on the west side of the mountain range of Mount Lebanon. This loss of water leads Lebanon to a shortage of water.

To achieve this goal, various measures and experiences are used to uncover the major causes of the problem and to find ways to fight it.

The measures and experiments to be applied are:

  • Estimated amount of water lost annually during rainy seasons.
  • Estimate of the amount of erosive soil.
  • Study the report runoff / drainage.
  • Effect of urbanization and forest cover on runoff and erosion.
  • Modeling of the results obtained.

Bibliography:

Duchaufour P., 1988. Abstract of pedology. MASSON, 224 pages.

El-Fadel M., 2002. Water Resources in Lebanon Current Situation and Future Needs: p.2.

FAO, 1993. Protect and produce. FAO Rome, Italy, 36 pages.

Gallien E., Bissonnais Y., Eimberck M., Benkhadra H., Ligneau L., Ouvry JF. and Martin P., 1995. Influence of fallow plant cover on runoff and diffuse erosion in cultivated loam soil. Cahiers Agricultures: p. 171-183.

Grill J.-J. and Duvoux B., 1991. Control of runoff and erosion. Ed CEMAGREF: p. 14-15.

Jetté JP, 1998. Forestry practices better adapted to the slopes of Quebec. FORESTRY, Series: Conservation of Forest Resources, Number 5.

Martin P., 1998. Cahiers d’agriculture. 7 (2): p.111-119.

RUSLE, 1991. www.iwr.msu.edu/~ouyangda/rusle/rusle_left.html

2002-2003

M. Thérèse ABI SAAB

Université Saint-Esprit De Kaslik / Faculty of Agriculture

Résumé : L’eau et le sol constituent une part importante des ressources naturelles qu’il faut exploiter rationnellement pour assurer leur durabilité. Dans la région allant de Choueifat jusqu’à Rmeileh, la qualité de l’eau est fortement menacée par l’intrusion de l’eau de mer. L’augmentation de l’urbanisation entraîne un accroissement de la demande en eau. Les gens ne trouvent de solution qu’en pompant l’eau souterraine. Cela conduit à la pollution, la salinisation et l’épuisement de l’eau des nappes aquifères. Cette urbanisation mène aussi à l’augmentation du ruissellement superficiel et nuit au phénomène de la recharge naturelle des nappes aquifères. L’utilisation d’un système d’information géographique (SIG) qui fournit différentes données cartographiques au niveau des bassins versants englobant la région d’étude apporte de l’aide pour établir le bilan hydrique régional, comprendre les facteurs qui agissent sur le processus du ruissellement et sur les problèmes confrontés par la recharge naturelle des nappes aquifères. Parmi les facteurs qui influent sur le ruissellement, il faut considérer les facteurs morphopédologiques (forme du terrain, type du sol, texture…) et les facteurs anthropiques (urbanisation, occupation des sols…).
Gérer rationnellement l’eau souterraine et celle issue du ruissellement est d’une extrême importance dans le cadre de la gestion intégrée de l’eau.

Mots-clés: ruissellement, bassin versant, bilan hydrique, recharge naturelle, système d’information géographique (SIG), dégradation du sol, gestion intégrée de l’eau.

Introduction: La crise croissante de l’eau au niveau mondial menace la sécurité, la stabilité et la durabilité de l’environnement des nations en voie de développement. 
La nécessité d’aborder la gestion et la mise en valeur des ressources en eau selon une approche plus intégrée et davantage orientée vers la dimension humaine a été reconnue progressivement sous l’impulsion de plusieurs grandes conférences et initiatives internationales.
Des stratégies de gestion des ressources naturelles sont donc nécessaires au niveau régional, national et local.
Au Liban, les plans de protection pour prévenir des désastres menaçant les ressources naturelles sont très limités et ne répondent pas aux exigences de la sécurité de l’environnement. (Shaban et Khawlie, 1998). L’eau et le sol représentent une part considérable de ces ressources; une exploitation rationnelle et une bonne gestion sont nécessaires pour un développement durable assurant à la fois la protection de l’environnement et la prospérité de l’économie nationale.
Pour protéger l’eau, le développement des pratiques qui réduisent le ruissellement, l’érosion et les pollutions sont utiles (Martin, 1998).
Il est à noter que le ruissellement est un problème reconnu mondialement. Il cause la dégradation de la productivité des sols et de la qualité de l’eau et augmente les risques d’inondation (Ouyan et Bartholic, 2001).
Pour étudier le ruissellement sur un territoire, il est nécessaire de prendre en compte les caractéristiques morphopédologiques des bassins versants (pente, forme des bassins, type du sol, …) et des critères anthropiques (occupation du sol, habitat,…).
La gestion de l’eau au niveau des bassins versants à travers l’élaboration du bilan hydrique offre donc une méthode effective pour intercepter le ruissellement. Elle permet le développement de plusieurs techniques de conservation de l’eau et du sol pour prévenir contre l’érosion hydrique, diminuer le ruissellement superficiel, et par conséquent, accroître l’infiltration de l’eau dans le sol pour favoriser la recharge des nappes aquifères.
Dans cette étude, la région allant de Choueifat jusqu’à Rmeileh est prise en considération. L’étude des bassins versants englobant cette région sera effectuée pour voir comment se déroule le processus du ruissellement, de la recharge naturelle des nappes aquifères et l’impact de ces phénomènes sur le sol.

Objectif de l’étude: Récemment, devant l’accélération des changements démographiques et socio-économiques des dernières décennies, une malgestion de l’eau et du sol s’est dessinée. (FAO, 1994).
Le caractère montagneux du Liban explique pourquoi ce pays est sous la menace de nombreux aléas naturels (Shaban et al., 2001). 
Le développement urbain des sociétés est en état de croissance continuelle. Cette urbanisation mène à la destruction des principales ressources naturelles notamment l’eau et le sol. On assiste donc à un déboisement massif du sol qui ne pourra plus retenir l’eau des précipitaitons et la formation du ruissellement hydrique entraîne des quantités énormes de terre et différents matériaux. Les activités humaines nuisibles sont représentées principalement par l’excavation chaotique des sols pour l’implantation des carrières et la construction d’habitats et de routes (Bou Kheir et al., 2001 a). La superficie des terres destinées à être cultivées tend à devenir de plus en plus minime chaque année, et les meilleures terres sont sous le goudron et le béton. L’expansion urbaine est donc la principale cause de ce problème (Grosclaude, 1999).
L’objectif de l’étude menée dans la région de Choueifat jusqu’à Rmeileh se situe autour des axes suivants:
-étudier l’influence de l’urbanisation sur le ruissellement de l’eau.
-Etablir le bilan hydrique, à deux moments différents (bilan de 1962 et celui de 2003), en tenant compte des bassins versants englobant cette région. Le bilan hydrique permettra de comprendre le devenir des eaux, des précipitations et comment elles sont partagées. Il permettra aussi de préciser la relation entre le ruissellement superficiel et la nature du sol, son occupation, sa forme, …, et comment se déroule la recharge naturelle des nappes aquifères.
-Essayer de comprendre, à travers le bilan hydrique, le phénomène de l’intrusion de l’eau de mer dans les nappes aquifères.
-Savoir gérer l’eau au niveau d’un bassin versant tout en essayant de comprendre comment cette région pourra utiliser, d’une facon mixte, l’eau souterraine et l’eau superficielle suivant une stratégie de gestion intégrée.

Méthode de travail: Pour mieux comprendre le rôle de la gestion de l’eau au sein des bassins versants, le développement des techniques basées sur un système d’information géographique (SIG) apporte certainement de l’aide pour suivre le cycle de l’eau du bassin.
Le SIG constitue un outil important pour prévoir et gérer le ruissellement superficiel (Bou Kheir et al, 2001 b). Il permet la combinaison de plusieurs données d’origine cartographique pour produire de nouvelles informations qui sont des éléments d’aide à la décision afin de gérer plus rationnellement l’espace.
Le travail au Centre National de Télédétection du CNRS (Centre National de Recherches Scientifiques) permettra l’établissement des cartes suivantes de la région allant de Choueifat jusqu’à Rmeileh:
-carte de l’expansion urbaine: cette carte est exécutée à partir de la combinaison dans un SIG de la carte de l’urbanisation de 1962 avec celle de l’urbanisation actuelle. La comparaison entre ces deux cartes montrera l’augmentation de l’expansion urbaine dans la région d’étude.
-carte de l’occupation du sol: le changement de l’occupation du sol a des effets sur l’infiltration de l’eau dans le sol et sur la capacité de rétention de ce dernier. Cette carte est très utile pour pouvoir identifier les superficies concernant le sol urbanisé, les forêts, les arbres fruitiers,…: Elle facilitera aussi le calcul de la demande en eau. 
-carte du sol de la région d’étude: elle permettra de relever les différents types de sol. Le sol constitue un important facteur pour déterminer les zones sujettes à un fort ruissellement, zone à haute infiltrabilité,…
-cartes géologique et hydrogéologique: elles permettent de connaître les différentes classes géologiques de cette région ainsi que leur partage suivant des zones à haute infiltration, moyenne ou faible. La carte hydrogéologique permettra de déceler les rivières pérennes et saisonnières qui sont des réseaux de collecte d’une bonne partie du ruissellement au sein des bassins versants. Cette carte montrera aussi les failles qui existent dans cette région et qui agissent sur le phénomène de la recharge naturelle des nappes aquifères. 
-carte de la forme du terrain: elle montre surtout les pentes qui sont un important facteur agissant sur le ruissellement ainsi que sur la direction et la concentration des eaux précipitées. 
-carte de la capacité d’infiltration du sol au niveau des bassins versants de la région: elle montre les différents bassins versants de la région ainsi que la capacité d’infiltration de tous les terrains. A partir de cette carte, on peut savoir les quantités d’eau qui s’infiltrent dans le sol de chaque bassin versant. 
-carte des précipitations: elle montre les différents taux de précipitations de la région d’étude. 

A partir de ces différentes cartes, on peut établir le bilan hydrique au niveau de chaque bassin versant de la région. On peut ainsi savoir le devenir des eaux précipitées, la quantité qui ruisselle et quels sont les différents facteurs qui agissent sur ce ruissellement. Ce bilan hydrique est un outil nécessaire pour comprendre l’intrusion de l’eau de mer dans cette région. 

Importance du sujet: Au Liban, le secteur de l’eau affronte beaucoup de problèmes qui nécessitent une approche intégrée combinant des connaissances théoriques et techniques sur l’eau. Les études qui s’intéressent au bilan hydrique se révèlent très utiles. 
Dans la région côtière libanaise, comme celle de Choueifat-Rmeileh, les études sur le processus du ruissellement et sur le recharge des aquifères (à travers l’utilisation du bilan hydrique) sont très limitées étant donné que les principales études portent sur la qualité des eaux et surtout sur la salinité. Il est donc important d’étudier le ruissellement dans cette région qui connaît, année après année, une véritable expansion urbaine. Cette expansion fait augmenter la demande en eau, le pompage de l’eau souterraine, et, par conséquent, pollue et épuise l’eau des aquifères qui n’arrive pas à être restaurée par la recharge naturelle. 
Le problème du ruissellement menace aussi le sol, ressource non ou peu renouvelable sur une période de mille ans, les plans d’aménagement appropriés sont très limités. 
Donc cette étude est très utile pour mieux gérer l’eau et le sol de manière durable. 

Budget de l’étude: Le budget total de l’étude est de l’ordre de 5 000 000 LL. Il est réparti de la manière suivante:
-transport : 2 000 000 LL.
-cartographie: 2 000 000 LL.
-autres: 1 000 000 LL.

Justification du budget de l’étude: Tout d’abord, une bonne partie du budget est nécessaire pour le transport afin de descendre sur le terrain de la région d’étude. Ces descentes sont très fréquentes car elles permettent de mieux connaître la région d’étude et de collecter certaines données nécessaires pour le travail. 
La cartographie nécessite aussi un budget important surtout que les personnes qui m’ont appris comment utiliser le système d’information géographique (SIG) doivent être payées. Il ne faut pas aussi oublier le coût de l’impression des cartes établies, étant donné que ces cartes, déjà nombreuses, sont imprimées plusieurs fois. 

Références:
-Bou Kheir R., Shaban A., Khawlie M., Girard M-C, 2001a. Impact des activités humaines sur l’érosion hydrique des sols dans la région côtière montagneuse du Liban. Journal Sécheresse, 12(3):157-165.
-Bou Kheir R., Girard M-C, Shaban A., Khawlie M., Faour G., Darwich T., 2001b. Apport de la télédétection pour la modélisation de l’érosion hydrique des sols dans la région côtière montagneuse du Liban. Télédétection, (2):91-102.
-FAO, 1994. Introduction à la gestion conservatoire de l’eau, de la biomasse et de la fertilité des sols (GCES). Bulletin pédologique, 70.
-FAO, 1995. Land and water integration and river basin management. Proceedings of an FAO informal workshop, Rome, Italy. 
-Grosclaude G., 1999. L’eau. Milieu naturel et maîtrise, tome1. INRA:20-24.
-Martin P., 1998. Maîtrise du ruissellement et modélisation des pratiques de production. Cahiers d’agriculture, 7(2):111-119.
-Ouyang D. et Batholic J., 2001. Web-Based GIS application for soil erosion prediction.
-Shaban A., Khawlie M., 1998. Geoenvironmental assessment of riparianzones under extreme climatic events: a case study of representative rivers in Lebanon. In: Proc Symp on Mediterranean rivers and their management, Zaragosa, 21 sept-2 oct.
-Shaban A., Khawlie M., Bou Kheir R. et Abdallah C., 2001. Assessment of road instability along a typical mountainous road using GIS and aerial photos, Lebanon-eastern Mediterranean. Bull Eng Geol Env, 60:93-101.

2002-2003

Tony JALLOUL

University of Balamand / Faculty of Engineering

Abstract

Hydro technology, which is the utilization of energy generated from running water, is in use by man since his evolution. The hydro energy is used to irrigate, to transport and to generate electric power. Ancient Lebanese watermills are mainly used for irrigation and grinding. The inspiration of this proposal stem from the fact that if running water is used to turn very heavy millstones for crushing and grinding olives and grains, then a question will pose itself: why don’t we use this “old” technology to turn a turbine to generate electricity?

The idea of generating using watermills is not new. However, it is recently put into effects by having world organization such as the UN and the EU sponsored projects in the third world countries.

The proposed work will have three main objectives: technical, economical and environmental aspects of watermills related to generating electricity from an old concept of using running water. The work will also have topographical map of existing ancient active and inactive watermills in North Lebanon and detailed analysis of selected sample sites.

Preambule

The utilization of watermills to generate electricity has been used effectively in Nepal since 1980. Nepal is one of the first countries where significant process has been done to upgrade watermills. Initially, local development was held by assembling a vertical-axis impulse turbine made with steel buckets and penstock pipe. This technique became known as the Multi-Purpose Power Unit (MPPU), however this technology being promoted through foreign aid programs because of its simplicity, similarity in principal to the traditional watermill and low cost [1].

Today, the hydroelectricity is a well-established technology. It is used by all countries and it is the principal source of electric power in 30 countries. In Lebanon, the produced hydroelectric power is no more than 4% of the total generated power [2]. Clearly, this minute percentage of generated hydroelectric power can be and should be increased especially in Lebanon where its climate, geographical, topographical and hydrological characteristics are strong incentives to better utilize our national wealth of WATER.

The nature and size of the rivers in Lebanon hinder large-scale hydroelectric generation. Thus, the emphasis must be on medium- and small-scale generation. The existing and future hydroelectric plants are classified as medium-scale. This proposal taps into small-scale generation; the “Mini-Hydro Electric Plant”.

Ancient watermills have been widely used in Lebanon for mainly oilive crushing and grain grinding. The concept of these watermills can be effectively used to produce electricity. The development and installation of such watermills could play a significant social and economical role. These environmentally friendly watermills will have a direct impact on remote scattered villages that may lead not only to tourism but also to enable them to generate their own need of electric energy and in some cases excess generated electricity can be sold off.

Watermills

The earliest watermills are estimated to have appeared in the Middle East during the second century B.C., with a vertical axis design that used to grind grain. Later on, variety of design has appeared in many European countries especially during the Roman Empire. The most widely used design at that period was water wheel design. There were three different types of water wheel, undershot wheel design, which can be used in almost any stream or river, but such types become inefficient if the water down stream backup because of flooding, impending the motion of wheel.

Second design is the overshot wheel. The wheel run under the falling water on the blades from above avoiding the flooding problem, but the head of the water (entering water) must be as high as at least the diameter of the wheel; this limits the usage of such system on streams and rivers with gentle gradients. Also this design tends to be more massive than the weight of the water falling from above.

The breastshot is an advanced design, the head of the water is not necessarily high, it is enough to be at the wheel axis level even a little less. This design eliminates the flooding effects, in which the water is channeled between parallel breast walls and strikes the propellers to turn the wheel.

The Lebanese Watermills

The Lebanese watermills have a unique design. The watermills consist of three main parts, the lime stones, the turbine and the vertical tunnel. However, there are many other parts such as the control gears that control the water flow and others. The millstone consist of two lime stones, one fixed lays on the ground and the other runs over it to grind the grain. The second important part is the turbine, which is made mainly from wood. It is a vertical axis turbine that uses the waterfall to run. The vertical tunnel, in which the water falls to hit the propeller of the turbine, is built as high as can be in order to deliver a kinetic energy.

Objectives
The multifaceted project will have many objectives. The main objectives are technical, economical and environmental.

I-Technical objectives.

The technical objectives will focus on hydrology, location, sizing, design aspects, and feasibility of the watermills.

The technical concept of the watermill is composed of the following: running water is diverted though an open channel and the transported water falls into a vertical tunnel. Effect of gravity and the decreasing diameter of the tunnel provide high pressured water that turns a turbine which turns the limestone.

The density of a typical limestone ranges between 2.1 T/m3 and 2.4 T/m3. Typical diameter and height of the limestone is about 2 m and 0.4 m, respectively. Thus the estimated weight of the limestone will be approximately 2.64 Tones. Therefore, the energy generated from the watermill is large enough to turn approximately a 3-Tone limestone. Notice that the existing large friction is added to the overall weight of the limestone.

The ideal location of the watermills is on the river with a high gradient. In dry seasons, many streams and even small rivers dry out. Thus watermills were usually built on the perennial rivers, streams and springs. The Mini-Hydro Plants can use those watermills to generate electrcity all year-round. Even those which are built on seasonal streams, the Mini-Hydro Plant can operate for more than six months. If the electrical output of one Mini-Hydro Plant does not meet the electrical demand of a neighboring village, then cascaded watermills can be used. The size of a proposed Mini-Hydro Plant depends on many factors. The most important factors are: gradient of the river, quantity of water flow, and the shore area.

Tasks to be done are:
1-create a topographical map of the existing watermills by :
   a-establishing the locations of watermills scattered in North Lebanon.
   b-defining the physical characteristics of each watermill.
   c-determining the usage and the recent activity of each watermill.
   d-locating the nearby villages to each watermill.
2-Select a sample site with an exisisting watermill to:
   a-study and analyse the physical characteristics.
   b-design a balanced local power system where supply and demand are matched for the nearby village.

The technical study will include a plant design of the proposed watermill, herein many important factors will be taken into account as to the appropriate turbine, generator and other mechanical and electrical equipment to achieve highest efficiency.

II-Economical Objectives

The hydroelectricity plays a significant economical role in many countries as it delivers a free non-polluting energy. Due to many problems, Lebanon does not make use ot its hydro energy as it should be. The 8600 Mm3/year of precipitation does not serve the hydroelectric sector in more than 4% of the electricity production [2] [4].

Table 1 and Table 2 summarize the state of the Lebanese eclectric sector.

Table 1 – Thermal Electric in Lebanon in 1999 [2]

StationTurbine TypeFuel TypeCapacity (MW)Generated (GWh)
ZoukSteamHeavy Fuel Oil
3 x 145
2926
ZoukGasDiesel Oil
175
29
JyehGasHeavy Fuel Oil
2 x 62 + 18
1686
HreycheSteamDiesel Oil
3 x 69 + 65
335
BaalbeckSteamDiesel Oil
2 x 35
383
SourGasDiesel Oil
2 x 35
461
Zahrani

2003-2004

Georges ANTOUN

Université Saint-Esprit De Kaslik / Faculty of Agriculture

Résumé

L’aménagement d’un territoire consiste à dessiner son utilisation rationnelle en se basant sur plusieurs critères et principalement la capacité et l’utilisation convenable et durable de celui-ci. Cet aménagement constitue l’une des priorités les plus alarmantes dans les pays en voie de développement comme le Liban. 
Dans cette étude, on propose l’aménagement de la région de Jbail, typique de la diversité du Liban du point de vue géologique, morphologique, pédologique, hydrologique, de l’occupation/utilisation du sol et climatologique. Cet aménagement est basé surtout sur l’évaluation des risques naturels attaquant cette région comme les inondations, les incendies de forêts, les tremblements de terre, les glissements de terrains, etc… mais il tient compte aussi de l’aspect socio-économique des activités actuelles et proposées et de leur impact négatif pour la population et l’environnement. L’approche suivie permettra la gestion durable des ressources naturelles (sol et eaux). 

Mots-clés : aménagement du territoire, utilisation durable, SIG, ressources naturelles. 

1. Introduction

L’utilisation planifiée d’un territoire est directement liée à l’évolution de la société, elle doit permettre à l’homme de tirer le maximum d’avantages des ressources naturelles tout en veillant à leur conservation pour l’avenir. Elle vise la sélection des sols pour leur utilisation d’une manière profitable (FAO, 1993, 2000). Cette planification s’avère d’une extrême importance au Liban. Bien que ce pays ne possède pas de richesses minérales naturelles importantes, sa nature géomorphologique présente une variété de contrastes. On distingue quatre unités géomorphologiques principales en allant de l’ouest à l’est : la zone littorale (< 100 m d’altitude), un bloc montagneux plissé et surélevé «le Mont Liban» (entre 100 et plus que 3000 m), une dépression structurale intermédiaire (la vallée de la Békaa) et la chaîne montagneuse de l’Anti-Liban (moins élevée que le Mont Liban). La chaîne du Mont Liban est la partie la plus diversifiée du pays. 
Les sols, typiquement méditerranéens, sont très vulnérables à la dégradation causée par divers processus naturels comme l’érosion hydrique et éolienne et surtout par les activités anthropiques (Bou Kheir et al., 2001a, b, c). L’urbanisation chaotique est à la base de la perte des terres productives, surtout que l’infrastructure contribue à une dénudation des terrains sur pente peu ou non stable. Cela augmente la fréquence d’inondations et des glissements de terrains sur substrat peu perméable. La population dense et les activités industrielles posent des problèmes de déforestation, d’incendies, de pollution des sols et des eaux. Cela vient s’ajouter aux pratiques agricoles non adaptées aux conditions locales et à l’usage non contrôlée des eaux et des produits chimiques, ce qui menace la durabilité du secteur agricole assurant la vie à 40 % de la population du pays, l’écosystème et le bien-être des générations futures.
Vu l’importance de la dégradation des terrains au Liban, et étant donné que les recherches reliées sont limitées, un aménagement des territoires de la région de Jbail s’avère nécessaire. En effet, c’est seulement en 2001 que le Liban a entamé un projet sur l’aménagement des terres (SDATL/Dar-El-Handasah/IAURIF, 2003), en utilisant diverses cartes des ressources et des risques naturels, à une échelle de 1/200000, produites par le Centre national de Télédétection qui fait partie du Conseil National de la Recherche Scientifique libanais (CNRSL). Cette échelle est insuffisante et convient uniquement au niveau global. Pour cela, nous allons nous baser sur la base des données SOTER (Soil and Terrain Database) à l’échelle de 1/50000 produite sous le système d’information géographique (SIG) pour évaluer l’aménagement des territoires de la région choisie (Jbail). Cet aménagement sera appliqué avec succès s’il est renforcé par des législations et soutenu par une politique au niveau des pouvoirs locaux et centraux.

2. Objectifs du travail

Ce travail vise à classifier de plusieurs façons (qualitative, quantitative, actuelle ou potentielle) les différentes zones de la région étudiée selon leurs aptitudes et les risques qui les menacent, et de comparer leurs utilisations actuelles pour les améliorer. Cette classification va assurer le maximum de profit pour l’homme d’aujourd’hui, car un bon aménagement du territoire dirige les utilisations des habitants vers le meilleur, ce qui augmente la productivité et les rendements, tout en diminuant les risques qui les menacent, en conservant la durabilité des ressources pour les générations successives. Ainsi, des cartes des risques naturels et de pression humaine à l’échelle de 1/50000 seront produites dans la région de Jbail. Les résultats de cette étude pourront être inscrits dans le programme régional de développement du pays, “Aménagement des Territoires” développé actuellement en coopération entre le CNT/CNRS, DAR El HANDASAH-SHAER ET PARTENAIRES, CDR et IAURIF.

3. Plan du travail

Ce travail vise à classifier les différentes zones de la région étudiée selon leurs aptitudes et les risques qui les menacent, et de comparer leurs utilisations actuelles pour les améliorer. Pour ce faire, nous allons nous baser sur le SIG et la télédétection, comme étant deux outils importants permettant la modélisation des risques d’inondations, de tremblements et de glissements des terres, d’incendies, d’érosion et de désertification en se basant sur la combinaison et la pondération des facteurs naturels et humains reliés comme les formations lithologiques, les types des sols, les précipitations annuelles, les pentes, les types d’occupation/utilisation du sol, les mauvaises pratiques d’irrigation, etc…. Certaines cartes des facteurs considérés sont disponibles dans le Centre National de Télédétection (CNT) du Conseil National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS)
Cette modélisation va aboutir à la classification hiérarchisée des potentialités agronomiques des terrains de la région étudiée. Ainsi, à titre d’exemple, les régions traversées par des failles et affectées par les séismes, les tremblements de terre, les volcans, les avalanches, etc…s’avèrent particulièrement vulnérables au risque de pollution et de transfert des contaminants vers les nappes phréatiques. Pour cela, il faut limiter dans ces régions l’expansion urbaine et l’utilisation en excès des éléments polluants (engrais, pesticides…), afin de préserver les sources d’eaux souterraines. 

Références

-Bou Kheir, R., Girard, M-C., Shaban, A., Khawlie, M., Faour, G., Darwich, T., 2001. Apport de la télédétection pour la modélisation de l’érosion hydrique des sols dans la région côtière du Liban. Télédétection, 2(2), 91-102.
-Bou Kheir, R., Shaban, A., Girard, M-C., Khawlie, M., 2001. Impact des activités humaines sur l’érosion hydrique des sols dans la région côtière montagneuse du Liban. Sécheresse, 12(3), 157-165.
-Bou Kheir, R., Girard, M-C., Khawlie, M., Abdallah, C., 2001. Erosion hydrique des sols dans les milieux méditerranéens : une revue bibliographique. Etude et Gestion des Sols, 8(4), 231-245.
-FAO, 1993. Guidelines for land use planning, Rome, 96 p. 
-FAO, 2000. Land resource potential and constraints at regional and country levels, Rome, 114 p. 
-SDATL/Dar-El-Handasah/IAURIF, 2003. Schéma d’aménagement du territoire Libanais, phase 1 diagnostic et problématique, DAR-IAURIF, 188 p.

2003-2004

Rima JANHO

Université Saint-Esprit De Kaslik / Faculty of Agriculture

Résumé
Les différents modèles de retrait d’eau ont mené à un abaissement sévère de la nappe d’eau et une intrusion de l’eau saline tout au long de la côte. Dans le monde entier, un grand intérêt est dirigé vers l’agriculture irriguée et sa durabilité sous l’effet de la désertification, la salinisation et l’érosion. Cinq à sept millions d’hectares de terres productives sont perdus chaque année par dégradation. La zone d’étude (Choueifat au nord jusqu’à Rmeylé au sud) est située dans la région côtière sud du Mont Liban. La zone, agricole de tradition, fait face à un problème de développement urbain qui sera accentué dans le futur. Cette urbanisation conduit à un pompage excessif de l’eau souterraine qui s’épuise de plus en plus, la recharge naturelle devient insuffisante pour régénérer cette quantité d’eau épuisée. L’étude des structures hydrogéologiques, l’établissement des cartes et les expérimentations par pompage sont nécessaires pour pouvoir établir un modèle conceptuel permettant de prévenir ou diminuer l’intrusion de l’eau de mer dans les sources karstiques côtières. Les résultats ont montré que cette région continue à être sujette à l’intrusion de l’eau de mer, de plus la situation s’aggrave mois après mois. La suggestion la plus pratique est de limiter le pompage, ceci implique la diminution du nombre des puits surtout dans les régions de Jieh et Rmeylé. 

Mots clés : pompage, intrusion de l’eau de mer, dégradation, désertification, recharge naturelle.

Abstract
The different ways of water withdrawal has led to a severe lowering of the water table and a saline water intrusion along the coast. In the whole world, a big interest is made towards the irrigated agriculture and its durability towards the desertification, salinisation and erosion. Five to seven million hectares of productive soils are lost every year through degradation. The study area (Choueifat North to Rmeyleh South) is located in the south coastal region of Mount Lebanon. This area, with an agricultural tradition, is facing an urban development problem, which will be increased in the future. This urbanization is leading to an excessive pumping of the groundwater, which is becoming scarce every day, the natural recharge is becoming insufficient for regenerating this water quantity. The study of the hydrogeological structures, the establishment of different maps and the pumping experiments are a necessity for establishing a conceptual model that allow us to prevent or limit the seawater intrusion in the coastal karstic sources. The results have showed that this region is still subject to seawater intrusion, in addition, the situation is becoming more severe month after month. The practical suggestion is to limit the pumping, entailing a lesser number of wells especially in the Jieh and Rmeyleh regions. 

Keywords: pumping, seawater intrusion, degradation, desertification, natural recharge. 

2004-2005

Fadi MATAR

American University of Beirut / Faculty of Engineering

AN ABSTRACT OF THE THESIS OF

Fadi Youssef Matar                for       Master of Engineering

Major:             Water Resources and Environmental Engineering

Title: Treatability of Leachate Released from the landfill of Zahleh

 The purpose of this study was to investigate the treatability of high strength leachate using a coagulation-flocculation process followed by a sequencing batch reactor (SBR). The performance of coagulation-flocculation was examined using jar tests and three coagulants, ferric chloride, aluminum sulfate and bittern, at several pH and coagulant doses. The SBR was initially seeded with a biomass coming from the aeration tank of a local wastewater treatment but the acclimation process did not succeed. Another seeding trial was conducted using a seed from a lab scale experiment. Several scenarios were tested under various mixing and aeration patterns. The nutritional balance (i.e. Phosphorus addition) and pH adjustment were also examined.

In the coagulation-flocculation process, the jar tests demonstrated best performance with 1,000 mg/l of ferric chloride at a pH of 6.3. The corresponding removals of COD and MLSS were 23 and 53%, respectively, while the achieved removals in the bench scale clarifier were 37% for BOD5, 21% for COD, 7% for TN, 30% for NH3-N and 42% for MLSS.

In the SBR, the bacterial population reached a steady state after about 19 days with an MLSS of 2900 mg/l and an MLVSS of 1500mg/l. After addition of Phosphorus, the steady state concentrations increased to 3500 mg/l for MLSS and 2000 mg/l for MLVSS.

The SBR was first tested for a total cycle of eight hours under different conditions of mixing and aeration. The removal of organics ranged between 64 and 74% for BOD5, 19 and 35 % for COD and 24 and 48% for TN. In the 72-hour SBR cycles, the BOD5 removal increased to 82 – 85%, the COD removal increased to 45- 47% and the TN removal ranged between 52 and 73%. The addition of Phosphorus improved the removal efficiency of BOD5 and COD to 87% and 51%, respectively. The 81-hour SBR cycles achieved 88% BOD removal and 49% COD removal. The cumulative effects of the sequence flocculation – coagulation and 72-hour SBR cycle resulted in a removal of 89% for BOD5, 60% for COD and 72% for TN.

A pseudo-first order model was applied to evaluate the removal of COD in the SBR. The model simulations exhibited a good fit with the experimental data for a solid retention time between 9.3 and 26.2 days. The corresponding heterotrophic yield ranged between 0.34 and 0.39 mg VSS/ mg COD, while the specific removal of the COD substrate ranged between 2.81 and 2.99 day-1, the maximum specific growth rate ranged between 1.01 and 1.11 day-1 and the decay rate ranged between 0.06 and 0.11 day -1.

2004-2005

Soraya MOUKARZEL

American University of Beirut / Faculty of Agriculture

Abstract

Water management is becoming a must with the growing freshwater needs. The first region to suffer from water mismanagement is the Middle East. The main purpose of this study is to determine the optimal cropping pattern between the most demanded crops that have the highest water productivity (cash value per unit of water). Therefore after calculating the water productivity for a selected group of crops, the decision to import or to locally produce will be based on comparative advantages of water productivity. Then, an optimization model will be developed and solved by linear programming utilizing the General Algebraic Modeling System to obtain the optimal cropping pattern that minimizes the cost of production in terms of money as well as in terms of water. This study is expected to help decision makers in setting a strategic plan on the kind and quantities of crops to grow in Lebanon. It will also help them find a way to let governments interfere in the current national virtual water trade balance in order to achieve higher global water use efficiency and thus save the natural resource and make it more sustainable.

Keywords: Virtual water, Water productivity, Water use efficiency, Optimization, Cropping pattern.

I- Introduction and Review of Literature: 

Introduction::
Producing goods and services generally requires water. With the growing world population, freshwater needs are rising. Meanwhile, a major matter is still ignored, this matter being whether there will be enough water for the next generations. The first major region to run out of water is the Middle East. This natural resource deficit arises from the inability of agricultural sectors, governments and institutions to adapt to the resource scarcity and take measures to find and mobilize substitutes. This water is being shared between three principal sectors, namely, agriculture, domestic and industry. On the world average, the agricultural sector uses about 70 to 80 % of the total water withdrawals, making it by far the largest water consumer. This leads to a fundamental problem for water short countries that should manage between their renewable water resources and their capacity for food production. Fortunately, water short economies can import water in food commodities. Water imported in this way is called “virtual water”.

The main objective of this study is to determine among the most demanded crops and the ones having the least water productivity, the optimal cropping pattern to be produced in Lebanon that consumes the least water volume and generates the highest revenue in order to save water in agriculture use and re- allocate it in other sectors.

The specific objectives can be stated as follows:

  1. Estimating the amount of water needed to produce the different crops in Lebanon.
  2. Evaluating comparative advantages of producing a crop in Lebanon or importing it in order to determine optimal production and trading strategies.
  3. Put the volume of virtual water trade balances of Lebanon with the context of national water need and water availability.
  4. Minimizing the cost of production by optimizing the right crops and their amounts to be produced in Lebanon as well as those that should be imported from foreign countries in the form of virtual water.


Review of Literature::

1. Definition of virtual water

The water used in the production process of an agricultural or industrial product is called “virtual water” contained in the product. (Hoekstra et al 2000). Virtual water is the water embodied in a product, not in real sense, but in virtual sense. Virtual water has also been called “embedded water” or “exogenous water”, the latter referring to the fact that import of virtual water into a country means using water that is exogenous to the importing country. Exogenous water is thus to be added to a country’s “indigenous water” [14]. Net import of water in a water scarce nation can relieve the pressure on the nation’s own water resources. Virtual water can be seen as an alternative source of water. Using this additional source can be an instrument to achieve regional water security.
Every year, farmers and traders in the Middle East move volumes of water equivalent to the flow of the Nile into Egypt, or about 25 percent of the region’s total available freshwater. The water imported in this way is called “virtual water” [3]. In 1996, the agricultural sector in Lebanon consumed 400 Mm3 of water, it was estimated that in 2000, it will consume 1600 Mm3 and 1700 Mm3 in 2015 [20]. This will be making of Lebanon a nation short of water and this, just by the amount of water withdrawal for irrigation purposes.
Virtual water combines agronomic and economic concepts, with emphasis on water as a key factor of production. The agronomic component involves the amount of water used to produce crops, while the economic component involves the opportunity cost of water, which is its value in other uses that may include production of alternative crops or use in municipal, industrial and or recreational activities. The virtual water perspective is consistent with the concept of integrated water management, in which many aspects of water supply and demand are considered when determining the optimal use of limited water resources [9]. In particular the opportunity cost of water use which is a key component of the virtual water perspective, must be considered when seeking an efficient allocation of scarce water resources.

2. Water scarcity in the Middle East

With the growing world population, there will be in increase in the demand for water. It is estimated that currently nearly 1.4 billion people (or the equivalent to a quarter of the world’s population or a third of the population in developing countries) live in regions that will experience severe water scarcity within the first quarter of the next century [26]. There is a major threat that the water available may be inadequate to meet growing food demands [24] particularly in water short countries.
Although it is generally not publicized, the Middle East as a region ran out of water in the 1970’s [2]. Many Middle Eastern economies must use fresh surface and ground water resources for food production. In contrast, in temperate region, up to 90 % of the water used in food production comes from naturally occurring water in soil profiles, called soil water. Soil water differs from freshwater in hat it can only be used in agriculture to produce crops. Freshwater can be used by all sectors (domestic, industrial and agricultural activities) and can be lifted, pumped and transformed. (Allan et Al).
Several countries in the Middle East region have been implementing a “virtual water” strategy implicitly for many years because the volume of water available for food production has not been sufficient to meet increasing demand [3].
Richards (1987) describes the gap between food supply and demand that arose in the region during the oil boom of the 1970s. Higher incomes combined with steadily increasing populations generated substantial increases in food demand that could be satisfied only by increasing food imports. Allan (1999) [5] states that “since the end of the 1980s, the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region has been importing 40 million tones of cereals and flour annually”. He suggests that “more virtual water ‘flows’ into the region each year than flows down the Nile into Egypt for agriculture”. Brown and Halweil (1998) reported that in 1997 the MENA region, which contains 5% of the world’s population, accounted for about 25% of the world’s grain import.

3. Virtual water trade flows between countries

Tony Allan (1998, 2003) [4], [5], [6], [7], [8] argue that virtual water trade can be an instrument in solving geopolitical problems and even prevent wars over water. Next to the political dimension, there is the economic dimension, equally stressed by Allan (1997, 1999, 2001) [3], [5], [6]. The economic argument behind virtual water trade is that, according to international trade theory, nations should export products in which they possess a relative or comparative advantage in production, while they should import products in which they possess a comparative disadvantage [31].
Hoekstra and Hung (2002, 2003) [16] argue that- while pricing and technology can be means to increase local water use efficiency and reallocating water at basin scale to its higher-value alternative uses as a means to increase water allocation efficiency- virtual water trade between nations can be an instrument to increase “global water use efficiency”. From an economic point of view it makes sense to produce the water- intensive products demanded in this world in those places where water is most abundantly available. In those places water is cheaper, there are smaller negative externalities to water use, and often less water is needed per unit of product. Virtual water from a nation where water productivity is relatively high to a nation where water productivity is relatively low implies that globally real water saving are made.
Oki et al (2003) [21] estimate that the global water saving due to global food trade amounts to 455x 109 m3/yr. Given that the total water use by crops in the world has been estimated at 5400x 109 m3/yr [23], this is a saving of about 8%. Oki et al (2003) [21] arrive at their estimates as follows. They estimate that the virtual water content of international food trade flows is 683×109 m3/yr from the point of view of the exporting countries. Producing the traded food products in the importing countries would require 1138×109 m3/yr. The difference makes the global water saving.
In some countries with large populations and limited resources, substantial amount of food will need to be imported, in perpetuity, even if all resources are committed to producing food for domestic consumption (Lofgren and Richards, 2003). Many countries import a large portion of their food supply whether or not they are explicitly implementing a virtual water strategy [7], [33]. The virtual water metaphor was created originally to gain attention of public officials for choosing policies that influence the use of water resources in arid regions. Several authors have described how water short countries can enhance their food security by importing water intensive food crops. Some authors have noted similarities between the virtual water metaphor and the economic theory of comparative advantage. The metaphor addresses resource endowment, but it does not address production technologies or opportunity costs. Hence, the metaphor is not analogous to the concept of comparative advantage. In other nations, the virtual water metaphor might be helpful in describing opportunities for adjusting production and marketing activities in ways that would increase the values generated with limited resources [31], [32]. Each country could then gain from trade by producing the goods for which it has a comparative advantage (a lower opportunity cost of production), while importing the good for which it has a comparative disadvantage (a higher opportunity cost of production).


II- Proposed Scope of Work and Methodology:

1. Setting the Status Quo: In the status quo, no import is allowed to Lebanon. It is assumed that the crops needed will be grown in the country without importing any of national requirements.
The most demanded crops in Lebanon for local consumption will be selected. This will be done by adding the amount of locally produced crops and the imported ones. After adding them, they will be arranged in descending order from the most demanded to the least demanded. Then, the total water amount needed for their production will be estimated on the following basis:

1.a. Calculation of specific water demand per crop type 
Per crop type, average specific water demand will be calculated separately on the basis of FAO and Lebanese data on crop water requirements and crop yields using the following relationship:


SWD[c]={CWR[c]}/{CY[c]}


Where:
SWD denotes the specific water demand (m3 ton-1) of crop c in Lebanon,
CWR the crop water requirement (m3 ha-1); and
CY the crop yield (ton ha-1).
The crop water requirement CWR (in m3 ha-1) is calculated from the accumulated crop evapotranspiration Etc (in mm/day) over the complete growing period. The crop evapotranspiration ETc follows from multiplying the “reference crop evapotranspiration” ETo with the crop coefficient Kc:


Etc = Kc * ETo


The concept of “reference crop evapotranspiration” was introduced by FAO in 1992 to study the evaporative demand of the atmosphere independently of crop type, crop development and management practices. The only factors affecting ET0 are climatic parameters. The reference crop evapotranspiration ET0 is defined as the rate of evapotranspiration from a hypothetical reference crop with an assumed crop height of 12 cm, a fixed crop surface resistance of 70 s m-1 and an albedo of 0.23. This reference crop evapotranspiration closely resembles the evapotranspiration from an extensive surface of green grass cover of uniform height, actively growing, completely shading the ground and with adequate water [27]. Reference crop evapotranspiration is calculated on the basis of the FAO Penman-Monteith equation (Smith et al., 1992; Allen et al., 1994a, 1994b; Allen et al., 1998):




in which:
ET0 = reference crop evapotranspiration [mm day-1];
Rn = net radiation at the crop surface [MJ m-2 day-1];
G = soil heat flux [MJ m-2 day-1];
T = average air temperature [°C];
U2 = wind speed measured at 2 m height [m s-1];
ea = saturation vapor pressure [kPa];
ed = actual vapor pressure [kPa];
ea-ed = vapor pressure deficit [kPa];
D = slope of the vapor pressure curve [kPa °C-1];
g = psychrometric constant [kPa °C-1].


1.b. Calculating water productivity

The water productivity of each crop will then be calculated on the following basis:





where:
WUE is the Water use efficiency in kg per m3
Yield is the yield in kg from 1 hectare planted
NIR is the net irrigation requirement in m3 for one hectare
After getting the farm gate price of each crop, the water productivity in $ per m3 will be obtained as follows:


Water productivity= WUE (Kg/m3) * Price($/Kg)


where:
Water productivity is expressed in $ per m3
WUE is the water use efficiency expressed in Kg per m3
Price is the farm gate selling price in $/Kg


From the above formulas, it is obvious that the crops having the least water productivity are the crops that consume the more water and that generate the lowest amounts of profit. These are therefore the crops that ought not be produced in Lebanon. From these crops, the five having the least water productivity will be selected in this study.
In the status quo, it is not allowed to import crops from out of Lebanon. After determining the crops planted in that region, the considered crops values will be evaluated. This value will be expressed per volume m3 which results from multiplying the quantity of product (Kg) by the unit value per product, expressed as volume of water per Kg of product (m3/kg). This value is the virtual water value and is calculated by the following equation:





Where:
ETa is the quantity of water evapotranspired at field level
Yield is the increment or total yield
This virtual water value will be multiplied by the farm gate price of the crop and this way, the dollar value of virtual water will be obtained.
After setting the status quo, it will be allowed to import crops from foreign countries. It is therefore necessary to compute as well the virtual water value of those same crops in the foreign countries and then choose the crops to grow in Lebanon as well as those to import.



2. Allow import of crops from foreign countries

2.a. Calculation of virtual water trade flows and the national virtual water trade balance

Virtual water trade flows between nations will be calculated by multiplying international crop trade flows by their associated virtual water content. The latter depends on the specific water demand of the crop in the exporting country where the crop is produced. Virtual water trade is thus calculated as:


VWT[ne,ni,c,t] = CT[ne,ni,c,t] * SWD[ne,c]


where:
VWT[ne,ni,c,t] denotes the virtual water trade (m3yr-1) from exporting countries ne to importing country (Lebanon) ni in year t as a result of trade in crop c.
CT represents the crop trade (ton yr-1) from exporting countries ne to importing country (Lebanon) ni in year t for crop c.
SWD represents the specific water demand (m3 ton-1) of crop c in the exporting country.


The above equation assumes that if a certain crop is exported from a certain country, this crop is actually grown in this country (and not in another country from which the crop was just imported for further export).


2.b. Decision basis considering comparative advantages

After determining the required amounts of water to grow our necessary crops in Lebanon without allowing import, it will be allowed to import some of national needs from foreign countries. Therefore, the same procedure will be followed to calculate the water productivity of crops outside Lebanon. First, for each crop imported to Lebanon, the countries of origin will be determined and the water productivity for these crops in Lebanon will be determined.
The farm gate prices of the crops will therefore be considered the price of the crops arriving to Beirut port and the amount of water needed to grow them will be null since, this water needed will not be affecting Lebanese water resource but foreign water resources which is not of our concern in this study.
The selection criteria in this case will therefore be only centered on the prices needed for importing the crops into Lebanon and thus, the crops originating from the countries charging the least cost for selling as well as the least cost of export will be the most profitable for Lebanese authorities to import.


3. Minimizing costs of production

The objective of this study is to minimize the cost of production of crops for the Lebanese government in terms of money as well as in terms of water resources. Therefore, the choice will be based on water productivity basis. This way, while deciding on whether to import or grow crops in Lebanon will be at the same time a procedure that will save money as well as a very important resource that is becoming scarce in the Middle East, this resource being water. The decision criteria will therefore be based on comparative advantages. For each crop, the water productivity from different sources will be opposed to that of Lebanon. The source having he lowest water productivity will be the one that should be imported. If producing the crop in Lebanon generates more productivity than any other country, then the crop in question should be grown in Lebanon.


4. Optimization model development

Based on a mathematical optimization model, the optimal combination of crops to be grown in Lebanon will be selected as well as those that should be imported. This will be performed by using the General Algebraic Modeling System (GAMS) with an objective of minimizing the costs of production subject to different constraints such as water availability, land, capacity of production in Lebanon and water productivity. This optimization model, will be done for each crop separately in such a way that determines the amounts to grow locally as well as the amounts to imports from each of the exporting countries. Sensitivity analysis will also be performed in order to determine the


III- Significance of Proposed research:

This study will aim at deciding on which crops to grow in Lebanon and on which crops to import. Knowing the national virtual water trade balance is essential for developing a rational national policy with respect to virtual water trade, It will also help us find a way to let governments interfere in the current national virtual water trade balance in order to achieve higher global water use efficiency and thus saving the natural resource and make it last longer.

Finally, this study will generate, from the comparative advantages when evaluating opportunities to import or export agricultural products, policy discussions regarding water resources.


IV- Time commitment and justification of the Itemized Budget

Full time research assistant (B.S or above) for a period of one year. The job is to collect field data of the pilot project (area to be studied)- (South Bekaa irrigation project) and data analysis.


V- References

[1] Allan, J.A. (1993) “Fortunately there are substitutes for water otherwise our hydro-political futures would be impossible” In: ODA, Priorities for water resources allocation and management, ODA, London, pp. 13-26.

[2] Allan, J.A. (1994) “Overall perspectives on countries and regions” In: Rogers, P. and Lydon, P. Water in the Arab World: perspectives and prognoses, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts, pp. 65-100.

[3] Allan, J.A. (1997) ‘Virtual water: A long term solution for water short Middle Eastern economies”‘ Paper presented at the 1997 British Association Festival of Science, University of Leeds, 9 September 1997.

[4] Allan, J.A. (1998) ‘Watersheds and problemsheds: Explaining the absence of armed conflict over water in the Middle East’ Middle East Review of International Affairs 2(1).

[5] Allan, J.A. (1999) ‘Water stress and global mitigation: Water, food and trade’ Arid Lands Newsletter No.45.

[6] Allan, J.A. (2001) The Middle East water question: Hydropolitics and the global economy I.B. Tauris, London.

[7] Allan, J.A. (2002) Water resources in semi-arid regions: Real deficits and economically invisible and politically silent solutions, In: Turton, A. and Henwood, R. (eds.) Hydropolitics in the developing world: A Southern African perspective, African Water Issues Research Unit, University of Pretoria, South Africa.

[8] Allan, J.A. (2003) “Virtual water eliminates water wars” A case study from the Middle East”.

[9] Bouwer, H., 2000. Integrated water management: emerging issues and challenges, Agricultural Water Management, 45, 217 -228.

[10] Brown,L. 1995. Who will feed China: wake-up call for a small planet? Washinton, D.C.: World Watch Institute.

[11] Chapagain, A.K. and A.Y. Hoekstra (2003) “Virtual water trade: A quantification of virtual water flows between nations in relation to international trade of livestock and livestock products”.

[12] El-Fadel, M. and Maroun, R. (2003) “The concept of ‘virtual water’ and its applicability in Lebanon”.

[13] Gleick, P.H. (ed.) (1993) Water in crisis: A guide to the world’s fresh water resources, Oxford University Press, New York, USA.

[14] Haddadin, M.J. (2003) “Exogenous water: A conduit to globalization of water resources”.

[15] Hoekstra, A.Y. (1998) “Perspectives on water: An integrated model-based exploration of the future”.
International Books, Utrecht, the Netherlands.

[16] Hoekstra, A.Y. and Hung, P.Q. (2002) “Virtual water trade: A quantification of virtual water flows between nations in relation to international crop trade”, Value of Water Research Report Series No.11, IHE, Delft, the Netherlands.

[17] Hoekstra, A.Y. and Hung, P.Q. (2003) “Virtual water trade: A quantification of virtual water flows between nations in relation to international crop trade”

[18] Meissner, R. (2003) “Regional food security and virtual water: Some natural, political and economic implications”.

[19] Nakayama, M. (2003) “Implications of virtual water concept on management of international water systems – cases of two Asian international river basins”.

[20] Nasir Nasrallah, An Nahar newspaper, 25 May 1996

[21] Oki, T.; Sato, M.; Kawamura, A.; Miyake, M.; Kanae, S., and Musiake, K. (2003) ‘Virtual water trade to Japan and in the world’.

[22] Renault, D. (2003) “Value of virtual water in food: Principles and virtues”.

[23] Rockström, J. and L. Gordon (2001) “Assessment of green water flows to sustain major biomes of the world: implications for future ecohydrological landscape management” Phys. Chem. Earth (B) 26: 843-851.

[24] Rosegrant, M.W., Cai, X., and Cline, S.A., 2002a. Global water outlook to 2025: Averting an impending crisis. International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI), Washington, D.C., and International Water Management Institute (IWMI), Colombo, Sri Lanka.

[25] Rosegrant, M.W., Cai, X., and Cline, S.A., 2002b. World water and food to 2025: Dealing with scarcity. International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI), Washington, D.C.

[26] Seckler, D., Barker, R. and Amarasinghe, U., 1999. Water scarcity in the twenty-first century, Water Resources Development, 15 (1), 29-42.

[27] Smith, M., R.G. Allen, J.L. Monteith, A. Perrier, L.S. Pereira, and A. Segeren (1992) “Report on the Expert Consultation on revision of FAO methodologies for crop water requirements”, FAO, Rome, Italy, 28-31 May1990.

[28] Wackernagel, M., Onisto, L., Linares, A.C., Falfan, I.S.L., Garcia, J.M., Guerrero, I.S., and Guerrero, M.G.S. (1997) Ecological footprints of nations: How much nature do they use” – How much nature do they have” Centre for Sustainability Studies, Universidad Anahuac de Xalapa, Mexico.

[29] Wackernagel, M. and Rees, W. (1996) Our ecological footprint: Reducing human impact on the earth New Society Publishers, Gabriola Island, B.C., Canada.

[30] Warner, J. (2003) “Virtual water – virtual benefits? Scarcity, distribution, security and conflict reconsidered”.

[31] Wichelns, D. (2001) “The role of ‘virtual water’ in efforts to achieve food security and other national goals, with an example from Egypt” Agricultural Water Management 49:131-151.

[32] Wichelns, D. (2003) “The role of public policies in motivating virtual water trade, with an example from Egypt”

[33] Yang, H. and Zehnder, A.J.B. (2002) Water scarcity and food import: A case study for Southern Mediterranean countries, World Development 30(8): 1413-1430.

[34] Yang, H., Reichert, P., Abbaspour, K.C. and Zehnder, A.J.B. (2003) “A water resources threshold and its implications for food security”.

[35] Zimmer, D. and Renault, D. (2003) “Virtual water in food production and global trade: Review of methodological issues and preliminary results”

2004-2005

Daniel EL CHAMI

Université Saint-Esprit De Kaslik / Faculty of Agriculture

Abstract

In Lebanese coastal regions, the uncontrolled exploitation of groundwater resources intended for domestic, industrial and agricultural purposes, imbalances the dynamic equilibrium between seawater and the flowing groundwater. Under such conditions, saltwater will intrude, which may have serious repercussions on both the prevailing environmental and economic conditions. In order to assess the status of salination of groundwater by seawater intrusion on the Lebanese coast, after the region of Choueifat – Rmeyle, situated in the south of Mount- Lebanon, the region going from Batroun to Akkar plain will be chosen as a study zone. In those regions, irrigation is mainly ensured by wells. Sampling will be done once a month. A complete physico-chemical analysis as well as Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) and Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) will be done. These analyses are meant to evaluate seawater intrusion and other forms of groundwater contamination, mainly by sewage water. Seawater intrusion will be assessed by using the chemical criteria and by studying, through a correlation analysis, the interrelations between the chemical and physical constituents of groundwater. In addition, climatic, pedological and geological data will be gathered to reveal the major causes of seawater intrusion. These data will also help to have the water balance in each region. Concrete solutions will be given including artificial recharge location and intensity.

Keywords: coastal aquifers, seawater intrusion, salinity, sound management, water balance, northern Lebanon.

I. INTRODUCTION

In Lebanon, more than 70% of the average yearly precipitation of 8,600 MCM is lost through different processes leaving 2,600 MCM of potentially available surface and groundwater resources with only 2,000 exploitable MCM (El Fadel, 2002). The total Lebanese water demands were evaluated at 2.500 MCM. Therefore, a clear water deficit is a threatening reality aggravated by increased demands and changing land use. In fact, any reduction in the plant cover associated with a high rate of urbanization (Masri et al., 2002, Darwish et al., 2003), in particular along the coastal regions, would have severe consequences on the total water balance, by a rise in the surface runoff at the expense of the vertical infiltration into the ground water. All this has contributed to the elaboration of the Lebanese water shortage issue. As a result of the population growth, the industrial development, the expansion of irrigated agricultural land and mainly because of the ever-increasing chaotic exploitation of groundwater resources, the use of available water resources is reaching unsustainable levels.
Of all economic sectors requiring water, agriculture is the major consumer as the water withdrawal intended for irrigation was estimated at 68% of the total amount withdrawn. Of these, surface water sources represent 54.3% and the groundwater such as artesian wells, recharge wells and springs 45.7% (FAO, 1996). Due to the government reluctance in the implementation of large-scale irrigation schemes, the amount of groundwater intended for irrigation has seriously increased in the past few years. Individual farmers are increasingly relying on water supply from groundwater resources by means of private wells. Around 2000 wells were added, during 1992-1995, to a total exceeding the 10,000 wells especially in the central Bekaa plain as well as in the Southern and Northern hills (FAO, 1996).
In coastal regions, the uncontrolled exploitation of groundwater resources intended for domestic, industrial and agricultural purposes, imbalances the dynamic equilibrium between seawater and the flowing groundwater, favoring the saltwater intrusion. Under such conditions, saltwater penetration may cause serious repercussions on both the prevailing environmental and economic conditions.
The coastal area of Choueifat-Rmeyle region is one of many districts in Lebanon, threatened by the penetration of seawater into the aquifers (El Moujabber and Bou Samra, 2002; El Moujabber et al., 2004). Due to the absence of collective irrigation networks in this pilot area, irrigation is mainly secured by private wells. This area is a typical horticultural region, mainly involved in greenhouse production of strawberries, cucumbers and tomatoes.
Despite the importance of the ever-increasing salination issue in that region, not enough data is made available for assessing the groundwater quality. The degradation in water quality could have detrimental effects on the agricultural production (FAO, 1985). Therefore, it is very important to quantify salinity increments and its impact on crop production. Moreover, the agricultural practices could also, in their turn, contribute to the deterioration of the water quality. In these intensive production systems, excessive fertilizer utilization and high evaporation could lead to significant salts build-up in the soil (Atallah et al., 1997 and 2000;) and to some extent to structure deterioration due to high sodium content (El Moujabber et al., 2004).
With prevailing needs for water allocated for irrigation, the seasonal disparity between the period of precipitation (winter) and the time of maximum demand for irrigation water (dry summer) has consistently led to excessive and uncontrolled withdrawal of groundwater. Such patterns have led to severe lowering of water table and ultimately caused saltwater intrusion along the coast. Water quality is as important as its quantity since its quality greatly affects the type of use and vice-versa. In the mountainous Lebanese rural areas where this water is later used for irrigation or as a source of drinking water, serious health problems due to bacterial contamination of rivers, springs and groundwater are current (Jurdi, 1995). In coastal areas, saltwater intrusion poses a serious threat to the quality of freshwater, particularly that in some locations seawater has actually intruded several kilometers inland into coastal aquifers (El Moujabber and Bou Samra, 2002). Other agricultural practices have also contributed to a diminishing water quality. Excessive fertilizer utilization in some areas has led to nitrate leaching which has been detected in elevated concentrations in groundwaters (Moeller et al., 2003). In addition, the unregulated application of pesticides and the discharge of raw sewage into surface and ground waters may cause the contamination of surface and subterranean waters, particularly in shallow aquifers.
The uncontrolled disposal of solid wastes in watersheds has also led to the contamination of river basins due to the leaching of chemicals. While these wastes will likely contaminate surface waters in the area, they might also infiltrate through fissured bedrock and pollute the groundwater downstream of dumpsite, thus expanding the contaminated region.
In contrast to the seawater movement inland, the Lebanese marine springs were geophysically investigated by a thermal infrared methodology. The survey was conducted by the FAO in 1973 and thermal anomalies were plotted on maps. Yet, the total discharge of these springs has yet to be known. Expectedly, their discharge varies from season to season and from year to year; similarly to land springs. Maximum discharges occur during August and September. Usually, marine springs are hard to track unless their discharges exceed the 15 l/s or 0.015m3/s (Davis and Deweist, 1966). The anomalies were detected by thermal infrared imagery three decades later and revealed 30% decrease in their number (CNRS, 2002). By plotting the marine springs on the hydrogeologic map of the area, it can be noted that the anomalies in at least three locations are associated with faults. So there is a possibility here that the groundwater flow is associated with the fault system promoting a direct contact of seawater with the coastal aquifer

2. Objectives

The objectives of this study are:

  • To assess seawater intrusion intensity and dynamics on the northern Lebanese coast;
  • To search for indicators of land degradation by seawater intrusion;
  • To establish water balance within the watershed to suggest a response means to improve the efficient use of water;


3. Materials and methods

The number of wells to be tested will be around 20 distributed among the regions: Batroun and Akkar.
GPS will be used to determine the geographical position of each well. Piezometric levels and complete physical and chemical analysis will be done once a month. In addition BOD, COD will be established.
Several maps will be produced to calculate water balance and determine pedological and geological conditions in each region.

As for outputs and activities, they can be summarized as follows:

Output 1 Seawater intrusion
Activity 1 Sampling
Activity 2 Analysis
Activity 3 Assessment


Output 2 Water balance and maps production
Activity 1 Maps production
Activity 2 Watersheds delimitation
Activity 3 Water balance calculation


Output 3 Seawater intrusion remediation
Activity 1 Analysis
Activity 2 Calculation
Activity 3 Assessment


4. Importance of the subject

This study complements previous studies but in different regions


5. References

Atallah, T., Darwish, T et Ward, R., 2000. La serriculture de la côte nord du Liban: entre tradition et intensification. Cahiers agricultures, 9 :135-139.

Atallah, T., Darwish, T. and El Moujabber, M., 1997. Cultural practices and soil salinity in greenhouses in Lebanon. In: International Conference on: Water management, salinity and pollution towards sustainable irrigation in the Mediterranean Region. Bari-Italy, 22-26 September. 115-123.

CNRS/NCRS, GORS. 2002. Hydrogeological assessment of water resources in the Lebanese coastal region: utilization of Remote Sensing. National Center for Remote Sensing (Lebanon) and General Organization for Remote Sensing (Syria). Symposium on the Final Report, Beirut, 56p.

Davis, S. and Deweist, A., 1966. Hydrogeology. John Willey and Sons, Inc., New York, 463p.

El Fadel, M. 2002. Water resources in Lebanon current situation and future needs. Workshop on water resources in Lebanon. Lebanese parliament/UNDP 13-02-2002.

El Moujabber, M. and Bou Samra, B., 2002. Assessment of groundwater salination by seawater intrusion in a typical Lebanese horticultural area. Acta Horticulturae 573:195-202.

El Moujabber, M., Atallah, T., Darwish, T. and Bou Samra, B, 2004. Monitoring of groundwater salination by seawater intrusion on the Lebanese Coast. Lebanese Science Journal, 5:2, 21-36

FAO, 1985. La qualité de l’eau agriculture. Bull. FAO Irrig. Drainage, 29.

FAO, 1996. Irrigation in the Near East Region in figures. Water Reports, p. 135-143.

Jurdi M., 1995. Potable water in Lebanon: Quality and quantity control program. Environmental Management for sustainable development in Lebanon. First National Meeting. Beirut 31 March-01 April 1995: 225-233.
Masri, T., Khawlie, M., and Faour, G. 2002. Land cover change over the last 40 years in Lebanon. Lebanese Science Journal, 3 (2): 17-28.

Moeller A. Altfelder S. Moeller H. W. Darwish T. and G. Abdelgawad (2003). A guide to sustainable nitrogen management in agricultural practices. Volume 8. ACSAD, BGR and CNRS/L. 90 p.

2005-2006

Georges MAKHLOUTA

University of Balamand / Faculty of Engineering

University of Balamand

Faculty of Engineering

Electrical Engineering Department

Computer Engineering Department

Master Research Proposal

Submitted to: Association of the Friends of Ibrahim Abd El-Al

Name of Master Student: George Makhlouta

Name of supervisor: Dr. Maged B. Najjar, Chairman and Associate Professor.

Faculty/Department: Faculty of Engineering/Electrical and Computer Departments

Academic Title: Associate Professor, Chairman of Computer Engineering Dept.

Thesis Committee: Dr. Mohamad Khaldi, Dr. Ossama Jadayel

Research Title: EMF Levels Survey Study in Lebanese environments

Expected date of Graduation: June 21, 2007

Date of Submission: June 27, 2006

Field of the Research: Environmental, EMF, Power Systems, High Voltages, GIS

 

EMF Levels Survey Study in Lebanese environments

Abstract:

The Lebanese community and the general public at large were made aware in the past year of the possible human health hazard due to exposure to power frequency electric and magnetic field of the recent 220 KV power grid in the country. It is necessary therefore to have detailed knowledge of the electric and magnetic field levels in different environments in Lebanon.

The work is to establish data measurements that can serve as EMF maps for Lebanon and for a variety of Lebanese situation. Special attention is directed to prepare contour maps of the electric and magnetic fields around the High voltage transmission lines in the Lebanese electric grid.

 Although much of the EMF effect studies are very well established globally (USA, Europe, India and China), in Lebanon it is never done. At a time where there are many violations of international standard regarding building and living areas near HV lines. We are concerned about the EMF levels that we are subjected to in Lebanon when no specific data and measurements exist, the significance of a major analysis of EMF levels is clear.

 The work will include literature survey on current EMF studies results and international standards, and will concentrate on surveying different crucial areas and environments for EMF measurements.

 

 

I.  Motivation and Relevance of EMF measurements in LEBANON

The goal of this EMF survey study is to extend understanding of 50 Hz magnetic and electric fields encountered in daily living for exposure assessment applications. To date, there is no single study that has looked at this issue in Lebanon. An evaluation of domestic EMF fields is an important part of occupational and other EMF exposure studies.

An attempt will be made in this study to quantify the variability of household and regional EMF fields and determine hazard zones or areas.

First, some of the many motives and relevance criteria for EMF study are listed and classified below:

A.Need based motives and relevance

– EMF Data in Lebanon is not collected

– Lebanon has a new 220KV and 400KV transmission lines in living urban areas.

– Variation of specifications and standard in Lebanon regarding HV towers.

– Increase EMF with an increase of Lebanon loads in years to come.

– Motivate EMF awareness of Lebanese individuals

B.Methodological Feasibility

– EMF Data collection using EMF testers and Computational programs.

– Acquiring EMF testers and meters.

– GIS availability to incorporate the Data.

The EMF survey involved extensive EMF measurements at a large (> 90) selected list of sites in the five mohafazat throughout Lebanon. These sites include houses, apartments, school, church/or mosques, offices, hotels.

 

II. Field Data Collection and Interpretation

To evaluate how much information is really needed to characterize household/domestic fields and to ensure data completeness, a number of measurements are required per site for various locations at each site. Measurements will be made for three orthogonal axes with respect to the body: Horizontal (front), horizontal (side), and vertical. Measurements will also be made at three body reference locations: head, chest and belt. Data will be reported in unit of milligauss (mG) for Magnetic field and in Kilo-Volt per meter (KV/m) for electric field.

III. Application in Lebanon

Identify locations in Lebanon in general, where conditions are indicative of high levels of EMF for awareness. In such areas a need for recommendation of measure to take for protection or to reduce the EMF levels. Prepare and present contour maps of EMF levels in Lebanon using GIS and household tables for different environments.

Implementation- A Laboratory Simulation Using MATLAB

In this research project, the following stages will take place.

  1. Literature survey of EMF health hazard and Levels
  2. Complete Geographical and Quantitative study
  3. EMF Data collection and analysis
  4. Simulation verification of some developed models for comparison with measured data and international levels.

 

As mentioned earlier, the approach for EMF measurements finds roots in the magnetic and electrical energy fields. Many of the mathematics and analysis tools are mapped directly to meet the needs EMF computations of power frequency. Having testers with sensors to measure EF and MF, in all directions, and modeling tools will help in collecting data for analysis. These items are available and supplied by U.O.B., Faculty of Engineering.

IV. Expected Results

The advantages of surveying the EMF levels in the Lebanese electrical power generation are expected to be significant. The awareness and knowledge will provide new information regarding power frequency EMF. The following results are expected to be reached:

  • Typical mean values of resultants for EMF in rooms, the data distribution, which axis is most significant.
  • Appliances EMF levels, means and peak and standard deviation.
  • Correlations between different room types in building which are near power lines.
  • Electrical wiring effect in houses. Grounding effect.
  • EMF profile during seasonal changes and over 24 hours period
  • EMF levels according to body reference.

Lebanese individuals and utilities should be aware of the EMF levels and to be able to take decision in implementing preventive measures.

The expected time for this project is one year and there is a need for a team of assistant for field work.

V.              Budget

BUDGET SUMMARY

 

Amount (LBP)

Equipment: EMF Testers w data Logging

3000000.00

Students support for master work

4500000.00

Travel: Conference travel and registration

3500000.00

Other: Consumables and transport

500000.00

Total          

11500000.00

 

References:

 

  1. Maged B. Najjar Harmonic analysis and effect on Electrical Power systems, North American Power Symposium, 1994.
  2. Louis Nerone, Maged B. Najjar Electrode-less Lamp Design and Harmonic Study on the Effect of the Electrical Power System, NAPS, Atlanta, 1995.
  3. R. Khaldi, Sensitivity Matrices for Reactive Power Dispatch and Voltage Control of Large Scale Power Systems, 4th WSEAS International Conference on: Power Systems and Electromagnetic Compatibility, Izmir Turkey, 2004
  4. C. Jadayel, GIS: A needed Technology for rural Development in Lebanon, 25th annual ESRI User Conference, San Diego, CA. 2005
  5. C. Male. Exposure of people to power-frequency electric and magnetic fields. 23 rd Hanford life Sciences Symposium, Richland, WA, 1984.
  6. Transmission Line Reference Book/ 345 KV-and Above. Second edition. Palo Alto CA, 1982.
  7. B. Kurtz, T. M. Shoemaker, The Lineman’s and Cableman’s Handbook-7th Edition, McGraw-Hill, 1986.